Sometimes ministers, industrialists, politicians, or any other high profile people require different types of security. In India, all the security procedures of these high-profile people are monitored by National Security Guards (NSG), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), Crime Reserve Police Force (CRPF), Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), and other police officers.
The term security refers to a condition of not being threatened, especially physically, psychologically, emotionally, or financially. In the legal field, it is recognised as freedom from apprehension. Security coverings are issued in India to persons who are known to pose a high-risk danger. Various levels of protection are granted to various persons based on information provided by the intelligence branch.
Bluebook and Yellow book
The Bluebook contains the guidelines relating to the security of the President, Vice-President, and Prime Minister. Whereas, the Yellow book contains the security guidelines for other VIPs and political persons.
The Home Ministry determines the degree of security needed with the aid of several intelligence agencies. Similarly, the State government also has its own criteria for providing security.
Apparently, in the list of Central government, there are 230 individuals who are being provided by security. This list of both central government and the state government varies in number depending upon the emergency.
Types of securities in India
In the X security category, there are a total of 2-3 police officers. Most of the people in India have X and Y categories of security.
In the Y security category, there are a total of 8 security personnel out of which 1-2 are commandos and police personnel. Moreover, on a rotational basis, 2 personnel security officers are always present with the person.
In the Y+ security category, there are a total of 11 security personnel are involved out of which 1-2 are National Security Guard (NSG) commandos. Moreover, on a rotational basis, 2 personnel security officers are always present with the person. This level of security is mainly on the Crime Reserve Police Force (CRPF).
In the Z security category, there are a total of 22 security personnel are involved out of which 4-5 are National Security Guard (NSG) commando and police personnel. This security is provided by Delhi police, Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), and Crime Reserve Police Force (CRPF).
In both the Z and Z+ security category an escort vehicle is included. The government also has to pay a cost for providing this security like the cost of Z security is almost 15-16 lakhs per month and this amount is paid by the government from the taxpayer’s money.
In the Z+ security category, there are a total of 55 security personnel look after all the arrangements out of which 10 are National Security Guard (NSG) commando. According to the March 2021 Central list, almost 40 VIPs are being provided Z+ security. The information related to this security is also a classified information, so publicly the list is not available but according to speculation the people in this list are Rahul Gandhi, Amit Shah, Rajnath Singh, Yogi Adityanath, Priyanka Gandhi, Ex-Prime Ministers, judges of Supreme Court, Judges of High Courts, Army heads, prominent personalities, and other important high profile ministers of the country are provided security.
The government also has to pay a cost for providing this security like the cost of Z+ security is almost 20 lakhs per month and this amount is paid by the government from the taxpayer’s money. However, there are various individuals who pay for their own security such as Mukesh Ambani, he himself pays for the different levels o security he has which is why when the government provided Y category security to Kangana Ranaut, the public asked the reason behind it. It was further said that a well-established actor like her can reimburse her security cost and there should be no unnecessary expenditure of taxpayer’s money.
Until 1981, the security of India’s Prime Minister was under the Delhi Police and the Special Task Force (STF) of the Intelligence Bureau. But in 1984, after the assassination of Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi a review committee was set up for strengthening the security by the Home Minister. This committee was known as the “Birbal Nath Committee”. Under the recommendation of this committee, the Special Protection Group (SPG) was formed.
SPG refers to the Special Protection Group security which is an elite group that provides solely to the country’s Prime Minister. In the budget of 2020, a total of 592 crores were allocated for Special Protection Group (SPG) security. Out of which 145 crores would be spent on modern security equipmemts and infrastructure. Under the SPG category, the number of individuals who provide security is classified information. In this level of security, the Special Protection Group (SPG) and National Security Guards (NSG) provide security cover to the Prime Minister.
Hence, there are 6 different types of VIP security in India. X, Y, Y+, Z, Z+, and SPG. Ministry of Home affairs with the help of different intelligence agencies decides what level of security is to be extended to a particular person. And a similar system is observed by the state government.