Trending: Call for Papers Volume 4 | Issue 3: International Journal of Advanced Legal Research [ISSN: 2582-7340]

New Education Policy, 2020


The first education policy came in the year 1965. Then came the new education policy in 1986 which was then modified in 1992. After a wait of 34 years, finally came the New Education Policy 2020 which plans to bring historical changes in the education system of India.[1]

In both rural and urban India, the programme provides a comprehensive framework for basic through higher education, as well as vocational training. By 2021, the strategy intends to completely alter India’s educational sector.Numerous reforms to India’s education policy are enacted under the New Education Policy (NEP) 2020.

Expenditure on Education:

NEP 2020 aspires to raise public education spending from roughly 3% to 6% of GDP as quickly as practicable.India spends far less on research and development than its global peers – only 0.7 percent of GDP is spent on R&D, compared to 2.8 percent in the US and 2.1 percent in China – the NEP proposes the establishment of a National Research Foundation, an autonomous body, to fund, mentor, and build India’s research capacity.The Science, Technology, Social Sciences, and Arts and Humanities sections will make up the Foundation.

School Education:

The “10 + 2” model will be replaced with the “5+3+3+4” model i.e., 3 years in pre-school/anganwadiand 12 years in school. This will be as follows:[2]

1.      Foundational stage:  3 Years Aganwadi& 2 years school, Class – 1-2, Age group – 6-8 years

      Focus: Activity based learning, multilevel playschools

2.      Preparatory Stage: 3 Years, Class – 3-5, Age group – 8-11 years

      Focus: Play, discovering, interactive classroom activity-based learning,

3.      Middle Stage: 3 years, Class – 6-8, Age Group – 11-14 years

    Focus: Experimental learning in the fields of science, mathematics, arts, social sciences, and humanities.

4.      Secondary Stage: 4 Years, Class – 9-12, Age Group – 14-18 years

    Focus: Multidisciplinary study, greater critical thinking, flexibility and more choices in subjects.

Additional Changes in existing school systems:

1.      Students to learn coding from class 6 onwards.

2.      A 10-day bagless or internship period will be implemented from class 6 onwards with local vocational experts such as carpenters, potters, artists, gardeners, etc. 

3.      Mother tongue can be the medium of communication up till 5th standard.

4.      Importance of class 10th& 12th board exam to be reduced.

5.      Assessment changes include a 360-degree Holistic Progress Card that tracks student progress toward learning objectives.

6.      Sanskrit and other classical languages to be made optional in every standard after 8th.


Higher Education:

NEP proposes a four-year multidisciplinary bachelor’s degree with several exit possibilities in an undergraduate curriculum. This will be implemented as follows:

1.      After completing one year of education, you will get a certificate.

2.      After two years of education, you will receive a diploma.

3.      After completing a three-year programme, you will receive a bachelor’s degree.

4.      Bachelor’s degree in a broad field that takes four years to complete (the preferred option)

5.      To harmonise degree education with worldwide norms, MPhil (Masters of Philosophy) programmes will be phased out.

6.      Higher education will be regulated by the Higher Education Council of India (HECI). The purpose of the council will be to raise the gross enrolment ratio up to 50% by 2035. Currently its 26.3%.[3]

7.      The policy demands that higher education institutions, such as the IITs, make improvements in terms of learning diversity.

8.      The policy demands that India’s education be internationalised. Universities from around the world can now establish campuses in India.

9.      Both private and public institutions will have set fees.

Teachers Education:

In the teacher’s education field, the NEP 2020 has brought a policy that by 2030, a four-year bachelor’s degree in education will be required to become a teacher. The hiring of teachers will be improved and made more open. By 2021, the National Council for Teacher Education will have developed a National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education, as well as National Professional Standards for Teachers.The policy’s goal is to make sure that all children, at all levels of schooling, are taught by teachers who are enthusiastic, motivated, highly qualified, properly educated, and properly equipped.

Other Changes:

TheNational Research Foundation will be established as the apex entity responsible for creating a strong research culture and increasing research capability in higher education.

The Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) would be established as a single umbrella organisation for all higher education in India, with the exception of medical and legal education. Regulation, accreditation, and academic standards will all be regulated by the same set of rules for public and private higher education institutions.

A bank of credit for academics will be formed. This will be a digital repository for credits obtained, with the goal of assisting students in resuming their education by allowing them to use credits toward future education.

It promotes the creation of a Gender Inclusion Fund as well as Special Education Zones for underserved regions and populations.


The New Education Policy 2020 has received good review overall. The change has been brought up after a wait of 34 years. If this policy gets successfully implemented throughout the country, India will be then be in a good competition in the field of education with every developing/developed country.


Authored by Shankh Shukla

Student, NMIMS Bangalore

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *