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Trending: Call for Papers Volume 3 | Issue 2: International Journal of Advanced Legal Research [ISSN: 2582-7340]

Female Genital Mutilation

Introduction

Female Genital Mutilation includes expulsion of the outside female genitalia fractionally or completely or other injury to the female genital organs for non – medical reasons. This is classified into various practices such as cutting, pricking, removing, and sometimes sewing up female genitalia. This is regulated from the age of 1 to age 15. The practice is mostly followed in African countries and have been spreading to various parts of world. The thought behind the training is fundamentally to control ladies’ sexuality and furthermore guarantee the ladies as virtue, unobtrusiveness and excellence. Young ladies exposed to FGM face a ton of wounds and are at high danger of physical reactions, for example, serious torment, dying, and stun, trouble in passing urine, faeces and sepsis. Long term consequences can include chronic pain and infections.

Procedures differ according to the country or ethnic group. They include removal of the clitoral hood and clitoral glans; removal of the inner labia; and removal of the inner and outer labia and closure of the vulva. In this last procedure, known as infibulation, a small hole is left for the passage of urine and menstrual fluid; the vagina is opened for intercourse and opened further for childbirth.[1]
Despite the fact that the theme has been a significant hotly debated issue since endless years however we have to work more harder to discover procedures to support networks and families to relinquish these unsafe practices. 

More than 200,000,000 girls and woman have undergone Female Genital Mutilation and Cutting (FGM/C) in 30 high prevalence countries, mainly in Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East. It is estimated that 30 million girls under the age of 15 are at risk of FGM/C over the next decade[2]. National surveys show that prevalence varies widely between and within countries; however, over half of the 200,000,000 girls/women with FGM/C live in Indonesia, Egypt, and Ethiopia. 44 million are girls below age 15. In most of the countries, the majority of girls were cut before age 5; in Yemen, 85 per cent of girls experienced the practice within their first week of life.[3]

CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE

The cultural and traditional components of FGM vary between ethnic enclaves. The procedure is routinely carried out between the ages of six and eight with a few cultures preferring to cut at birth, menarche, or before marriage. Mutilation is more often undergone alone, but can occur in groups, using same instruments on more than 40 women. The procedure is almost always performed in a ceremonial manner accompanied by music, food, and gifts. The operators can range from “circumcisers” (religious leaders) with no medical training to midwives and birth attendants. The tools used include knives, clippers, scissors, or hot objects. A sterile environment is not feasible to attain in the cast majority of cases, and no medical anaesthetics are available; the wound is sewed with crude instruments such as thorns. When infibulation takes place, thorns or stitches may be used to hold the two sides of the labia majora together and the legs may be bound together for up to forty days. The healing process is aided by ointments and compounds made of herbs, milk, eggs, ashes, sugar, or animal excrement, which is thought to facilitate healing.

INTERNATIONAL VIEW

As we see that FGM is against the nature and also violates the human rights of women and children. This additionally further disregards the privilege to life, health, freedom from torture, cruel and unusual treatment, violence and further on encroaches Physical Integrity.
This further leads to gender discrimination and which is guaranteed by various human rights internationally. Article 1 of the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979 (CEDAW) defines ‘discrimination’ as:
“any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.”[4]

THE INDIAN SCENARIO

BOHRA COMMUNITY

The Bohra Community is a community which focuses more on education and most of them are successful business people. The women in this community are highly educated. FGM in India is practiced mainly in the Bohra community. This community is basically belongs to the muslims which are divided into two parts: first is the sunnis and the second is shias. Therefore, the bohra community belong to the shias community. The community’s basic idea to to preserve the women and outshine them in the world and therefore, declare them the puriest form, modest and beauty.

COMPLICATIONS

LONG – TERM COMPLICATIONS
They include the formation of scars and keloids that lead to strictures and obstruction, epidermoid cysts that may become infected, and neuroma formation (growth of nerve tissue) involving nerves that supplied the clitoris. It may also cause pain in urinating, feel of urinating all times.
SHORT- TERM COMPLICATIONS
In this cycle, the female/young lady which goes through this cycle face numerous issues and impacts the mental/emotional wellness, for example, dozing confusion or dietary problem. The turmoil dietary patterns can prompt increment/decline in weight and the confusion dozing propensities can prompt reiterating horrendous dreams and fretfulness.

PREVENTION

Every women has a basic right to live and live for her life, if her right to live itself taken away from her then how can she possibly have a stable mind and indirectly affecting the health. The basic prevention taken to avoid practices in India. The integrated Child Protection Schemes is targeted towards providing preventive and rehabilitative services to children in need of care and protection and children in conflict. Girls who have undergone this or under the risk of going through this procedure come under the children in need of care and support. The following should be introduced under this scheme
1. Children emergency phone outreach
2. Rehabilitation of children
3. Create awareness among the people

CONCLUSION

While discussing the above points we can therefore, see that how this procedure has been causing problems to the women in the generation we live, not on physically but mentally also. Therefore, the government looking on the above aspects should take care of the women and specially children of the age of 1-15 whose right to live is taken away since they are born itself. A separate law must be facilitated inorder to expose to the problem in high societies, instead of declaring them as a religious practice.

REFERENCES

1.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Female_genital_mutilation#CITEREFAbdulcadirMargairazBoulvainIrion2011
2. United Nations children’s fund. Female genital mutilation/cutting: A global Concern. New York: UNICEF; 2016.http://www.unicef.org/media/files/FGMC_2016_brochure_final_UNICEF_SPREAD.pdf.
3. http://www.unicef.org/media/files/FGMC_2016_brochure_final_UNICEF_SPREAD.pdf. Accessed February 7, 2016.
4. Article 1, CEDAW. Full text of CEDAW available at: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/text/econvention.htm#article1
5. https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/fgm/RHR_01_18/en/
6. https://www.nursingtimes.net/clinical-archive/sexual-health/detecting-and-preventing-female-genital-mutilation-25-09-2007/
7. https://blog.ipleaders.in/female-genital-mutilation-india/
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Author: Yashika Bondwal 

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