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Business transactions are carried out on a large scale in today’s fast-paced world, and contracts are essential in establishing the rights and obligations of the parties involved. Standard Form Contracts (SFCs), often known as boilerplate contracts or adhesion contracts, are more and more common in a number of different industries. Usually, one party will pre-draft these agreements and give them to the other side with the option to accept or reject them. This blog examines the creation, enforceability, and pertinent laws governing Standard Form Contracts in India from a legal standpoint.

Understanding Standard Form Contracts

Standard Form Contracts are pre-written agreements in which the terms and conditions have already been decided upon by one party, usually the more powerful and dominant party, and are then submitted to the less powerful or strong party for approval. These agreements are frequently utilised in a number of sectors, including e-commerce, banking, insurance, and telecommunications. As the adhering party typically has little to no opportunity to negotiate the conditions, SFCs’ fundamental trait is their non-negotiability.

Formation of Standard Form Contracts in India

SFCs can be created in India in a number of ways, including through paper contracts, electronic contracts, and even as a part of the terms and conditions of mobile apps. The formulation and enforcement of contracts in the nation are governed by the Indian Contract Act, 1872. All agreements are considered contracts under Section 10 of the Act if they are made with the free consent of persons who are legally able to enter into contracts, for a legitimate consideration, and for a lawful purpose.

  1. Free Consent: One of the essential elements of a valid contract is the free consent of the parties involved. In the context of SFCs, the issue of free consent can be contentious. Courts in India have often examined whether the adhering party had a genuine choice to accept or reject the contract terms. If a party is forced to accept unfavorable terms without any real choice, it can argue that the contract was not formed with free consent.
  2. Competency: The Indian Contract Act also requires parties to be competent to contract. This means that parties must be of the age of majority, of sound mind, and not disqualified by law. While SFCs are usually offered to individuals, businesses, or consumers, the issue of competency becomes relevant when assessing whether an adhering party could understand and agree to the terms.
  3. Consideration and Lawful Object: For a contract to be valid, it must have lawful consideration and a lawful object. The consideration is something of value exchanged between the parties, and the object of the contract must not be prohibited by law. In the context of SFCs, the consideration may be the goods or services provided, while the object must not violate any legal prohibitions.

Enforceability of Standard Form Contracts

The enforceability of SFCs in India depends on various factors, including their compliance with the Indian Contract Act and other applicable laws. Here are some key considerations:

  1. Unfair Terms:The Indian judicial system has acknowledged the need to safeguard the adhering party’s interests in SFCs. Certain clauses may be declared unfair or unconscionable by courts, making them unenforceable. These provisions could have exorbitant fines, biassed arbitration rules, or stipulations that go against the law.
  2. Consumer Protection Laws: Consumer protection laws in India, such as the Consumer Protection Act, 2019, provide additional safeguards for consumers entering into SFCs. These laws empower consumers to challenge unfair contract terms and seek redress through consumer forums and courts.
  3. E-contracts and Electronic Signatures:Electronic contracts and signatures are becoming typical due to the growth of e-commerce and digital transactions. Electronic contracts and signatures are governed by the Information Technology Act, 2000, and its revisions in India, making them enforceable and lawful as long as they adhere to the rules.

Regulation of Standard Form Contracts in India

To address concerns related to the unfairness of SFCs, the Indian government has introduced regulations and guidelines aimed at promoting transparency and fairness. Some notable regulatory developments include:

  1. The Consumer Protection Act, 2019: This act empowers consumers to challenge unfair contract terms and seek compensation for deficient services or defective products. It also establishes consumer protection councils and commissions at various levels to adjudicate consumer disputes.
  2. The Competition Act, 2002: While primarily focused on preventing anti-competitive practices, this act also indirectly impacts SFCs. It prohibits unfair trade practices, which can include the use of unfair terms in contracts..
  3. The Draft E-commerce Policy: The government has been working on a comprehensive e-commerce policy to regulate the digital marketplace. This policy aims to address issues related to unfair contract terms, data protection, and competition in e-commerce.


In today’s business dealings in India, Standard Form Contracts (SFCs) have become essential. They provide a streamlined approach to contracts, allowing for quick and effective communication between parties. SFCs are commonplace, but they also bring up important legal and ethical issues, particularly those related to fairness, openness, and the protection of the persons concerned. Indian contract law aims to achieve a harmonic balance between fostering trade and defending the rights and interests of adhering parties. It is supported by consumer protection and competition regulations.

Continuous vigilance is necessary for firms, consumers, and legislators alike in this evolving legal environment. It is essential to make sure that SFCs work as vehicles for fair and just transactions rather than as tools for exploitation. The Indian judiciary has demonstrated a readiness to tackle these issues head-on, supported by legislative changes and regulatory efforts.

The recent enactment of the Consumer Protection Act, 2019 reflects the government’s commitment to enhancing consumer protection and ensuring fairness in contracts. Furthermore, the ongoing efforts to formulate a comprehensive e-commerce policy underline the recognition of the unique issues posed by digital commerce and SFCs.

In conclusion, Standard-form contracts are viewed legally in India from a dynamic and developing standpoint. They come with unquestionable advantages in terms of effectiveness and convenience, but they are also increasingly being questioned for potential inequities. The Indian legal system is actively tackling the task of striking the proper balance between enabling business and safeguarding the interests of all parties involved. The pursuit of fairness and justice in contractual interactions will continue to be a top priority for India’s legal and regulatory framework as it continues to adapt to the ever-changing commercial and technological realities.By staying informed, advocating for their rights, and participating in the shaping of policies, businesses and consumers can contribute to a more equitable and just contractual landscape in India.

This blog is authored by Aditya Kumar Mishra, a second-year student at National Law University, Delhi.

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