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Critical Analysis of Sustainable Development Goals- 2030


• The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a guide to achieve a better and sustainable future which consists of 17 global goals.[1] 
• The SDGs is passed in the United Nations General Assembly, 2015, are part of UN Resolution 70/1, the 2030 Agenda which it is to be achieved by the year of 2030.[2] On July 6, 2017, the UN General Assembly adopted targets and indicators for sustainable development goals. [3]


• Sustainable development has a universally agreed definition that was first written in the Brundtland Report. 

• Sustainable Development means not only that humankind should satisfy its current needs but also it should compromise the ability of future generations doing the same. Along with it also comes an idea of societal progress and an increase in quality of life.[4]
The objectives of sustainable development relies upon basic three Socio-economic factors. 
◦ For Sustainable Development the UK government adopted four objectives to achieving it. These include progress of society and impartiality, environmental protection, safeguarding natural resources and solid economic growth. [5] 
◦ In this 20th century, we are consuming more resources than ever, and polluting the Earth with waste products. 
◦ Sustainable development consists of a long-term, an integrated approach to developing and achieving a healthy community by jointly addressing economic, environmental, and social issues, whilst avoiding the overconsumption of key natural resources. 

Goals of 2030 Agenda

The 17 SDGs are wide and do not depend on each other. The 17 SDGs has a list of targets which are measured with indicators. There is no end date given to achieve these targets between the year 2020 or 2030.[6] 
• The Sustainable Development Goals are: 
  • Goal 1: No poverty 
  •  One of the greatest challenges that human society face is eradicating poverty in all forms. 
  •  The SDGs are a bold commitment to end poverty in all forms and dimensions by 2030. This can be achieved by increasing basic resources and services and supporting communities.[7]
  •  Goal 2: Zero hunger
  •  Unfortunately, extreme hunger and malnutrition remain a huge barrier to development in many countries. There are 821 million people estimated to be chronically undernourished as of 2017. 
  • By 2030, the SDGs aims to end all forms of hunger and malnutrition by ensuring each and everyone has adequate and nutritive food all year. [8] 
  •  Goal 3: Good health and well-being 
  •  The Goal 3 of SDGs is maintaining Good health which is very important for sustainable development. The 2030 Agenda shows the complexity and interconnectedness of the two. 
  •  Good Health and Wellbeing can be achieved by urbanization, removing social inequalities, broadening economic, threats to the climate and the environment, the continuing burden of HIV and other infectious diseases. [9]
  •  Goal 4: Quality education 
  •  In recent times many children are provided with a good and quality education and many of them are provided with both primary and secondary education. Even more girls are admitted in school than ever before.
  • Achieving quality education is the most powerful and proven vehicles for sustainable development. This goal ensures that each and every child complete free primary and secondary education by 2030. [10]
  • Goal 5: Gender equality 
  •  For sustainable future it is necessary to end all discrimination against women and girls. It is an evident factor that empowering women ensures economic growth and development of the country. 
  •  It is essential to give women equal rights on the property, reproductive rights, and to technology and the internet. [11]
  •  Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation
  •  There will be a shortage of water by the end of 2050 and it is calculated that at least one in four people will suffer due to water shortages. 
  • We must provide adequate infrastructure for safe and affordable drinking water to everyone by 2030. SDGs aims to provide better sanitation facilities and encourage hygiene. It is essential to protect and restore all essential water ecosystems.[12]
  •  Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy
  • To achieve SDG 7 it is essential to invest in solar energy, wind energy and thermal power, improving productivity in energies .
  •  Expanding infrastructure and upgrading technology to provide clean and more efficient energy in all countries will encourage growth and help the environment. [13] 
  •  Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth 
  • To eradicate forced labour and slavery we must encourage entrepreneurship and create more job opportunities. 
  • The SDGs aims to achieve productively employment opportunities, and decent work, for all by 2030.[14]
  •  Goal 9: Industry, innovation and infrastructure
  • Providing new jobs and promoting energy efficiency is an effective way to face economic challenges and environmental challenges. 
  • To accelerate sustainable development we must promote more industries and invest in scientific research and invention.[15]
  •  Goal 10: Reduced inequalities 
  • Income inequality requires global solutions. 
  •  To achieve this goal we must improve the financial markets and institutions in terms of regulations and promote foreign direct investment to regions where it is necessary. [16] 
  •  Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities 
  •  The two-third of humanity will be urban cities at the end of 2050. Without notably changing the method we manage and set up urban areas, the sustainable development cannot be achieved.
  • Creating employment and professional opportunities, timid and low- cost housing and building springy societies and economies will definitely promote sustainable development. [17]
  •  Goal 12: Responsible consumption and production 
  • By changing the method of production and consumption we can achieve economic growth and sustainable development by reducing our environmental trace.
  •  For more sustainable patterns of consumption it is essential to promote industries, business, consumers to recycle waste. These methods will definitely help developing countries to attain sustainable development by 2030.[18]
  •  Goal 13: Climate action 
  •  aims to assist vulnerable regions which are also essential to achieve other SDGs. 
  • It is possible to reduce the global temperature to two-degree Celsius above industrial level with the help of political power, investment, usage of prevailing technologies to 1.5°C, if an acute and pioneering action is taken.[19]
  • Goal 14: Life Below Water 
  •  One of the important goal of SDGs is to manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems from contamination, in addition to addressing the effects of ocean acidification. 
  • To alleviate the challenges faced by oceans it is necessary to intensify conservation and the sustainable use of ocean-based resources.[20]
  •  Goal 15: Life on land 
  • Forests are the sources for clean air and water, as well as being critical for fighting climate change. Over 30 per cent of the earth is covered by forests which furnishes indispensable habitats to millions of species. 
  •  A necessary action should be taken to control the loss of natural habitats and biodiversity. SDGs aims to hold up global food and water security, combating climate and adaptation, and promote harmony and reliability.[21]
  •  Goal 16: Peace, justice and strong institutions 
  • There will not be sustainable development without harmony, rule of law, human rights and productive administration. 
  • aims to remarkably control all sorts of brutality, and work with governments and communities to terminate dispute and instability. By Rule of Law, it is possible to strengthen the developing countries in global governance and also it helps to control the flow of illicit arms.[22]
  • Goal 17: Partnerships for the goals 
  •  The SDGs can only be achieved with strong global partnerships and collaboration. Many countries require Official Development Assistance to encourage growth and trade
  • The goals aim to promote international trade, helping developing countries in the export, fair and open trading system. It tries to achieve cooperation among countries in the world by supporting national plans to achieve all targets. [23]

Targets and Indicators

• Each goal contains 5 to 20 targets in which every target has one, two or three indicators to calculate the progress in attaining the targets. Totally there are 169 targets to achieve these 17 sustainable development goals.
• To measure acquiescence there are 232 approved indicators. In order to attain these goals triumphantly, data has been made available in an easily-understood form. They are briefly shown in the list of SDG targets and indicators. [24]


• Instead of concentrating the most desperate or basic priorities SDGs have been positioning antithetical goals and trying to do everything first.
• Some of the SDGs contend with each other. For example, exploring high levels of quantitative GDP growth makes it arduous to attain ecological and sustainability objectives.
• By increasing the job opportunities and salaries it can reduce the cost of living.
• Environmental restraints and global borders are belittled within the SDGs. [25]
• A commentary in The Economist in 2015 said that when compared to the previous eight MDGs these SDGs are total “a mess”. [26]
• If we analyse the idea of sustainable development it will definitely give more dedicated hope but rather less than a rigorous investigative representation
• Sustainable development is an idea which stands contradictory upon two parts one is with the boundaries that nature provide to us and the second part is the ability of human beings in development which is bounded by nature.
• It has been proven that establishing a relationship between environment and development is a compound one but rewarding enterprise.
This article is authored by Gowrav Hari Krishnan. P


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