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Artificial intelligence implies to intelligence prevailing in other things apart from humans. A science focusing on creating machines that behave and perform human like activities. It is a concept that makes and programs intelligent machines. Even before digital computer, scientists believed that computers can perform extremely well and be exhibit human behavior. As soon as computers came to existence there were plans to program them in way that one day they can surpass humans and perform all the possible and impossible tasks known to mankind. Computers started solving numerical, understanding English, playing games and taking commands.

The idea of Artificial Intelligence can be traced back from the time of the Greeks. Hephaestus was a great craftsman and in Book 18, there are two distinct passages where he is described as the creator of robot-like machines.[1] In the first paragraph, the idea of automatic waiters can be traced, “Three legged tables he was constructing, twenty in all, to stand round the wall of his well-built hall. To these he had fitted wheels wrought of gold, so that they could run by themselves to the banquet of the gods, at his wish, and back home, leaving everyone staggered.”

In the second he introduces a girl assistant made of gold, “Handmaidents, fashioned of gold, gave ready support to their master. Looking like genuine girls they proved their understanding by their intelligent speech, their proficient and skillful performance.”

Talos was also one of the bronze men of Hephaestus who guarded and defended Crete, and Daedalus and Arthenian architect making artificial wings to escape, was said to have created artificial people. Antikythera mechanism was the most surprising revelation from the Greeks that represented ancient clock computers. The arab astrologers were attributed with a thinking machine called Zairja. Is homunculus remembered? He was a little man invented by Paracelsus. He also wrote, “we shall be gods. We shall duplicate Gods greatest miracle—the creation of man”.[2]

Rabbi Juddah Ben Loew’s invention brought a warning to the growing greed of the golem builders because he builds a living clay man, Joseph Golem, which with time grew aggressive and had to be dismantled. The mortal’s human should not be dabbed in the special province of God; the creation of intelligent beings and thus bringing a temporary and brief halt to the attempts of making thinking beings and thinking machines. Much before the time of Homes, such ideas can be well traced in the history of the Hindus as well. Several machines have been givenreference to in the Samarangana- Sutradhara of Bhoja. In the same text[3] there is a mention about the wooden robots and the heavenly bodies in motion.

Harvey discovered the circulation of the sap in heavenly bodies in the 17th century but much before that the discussion has been found in the Vaisesika- Sutras of Kanada. The Mahabharatta discussed about the intelligence in plants.  Dr. J. C. Bose conducted a well-known[4] experiment on these lines. The Panachtantra[5] gives evidence about the intelligent speeches given by birds and animals.

The Chinese too had similar achievements, one being the astronomical clock made by SuSu in 1088 A.D.[6]these mentions clearly give a view that artificial intelligence is anything outside human intelligence and the concept is not new.

Ever since the first computers came to existence, the scientists have been trying to make them think. Today computers can forecast weather conditions and even keep an eye on the movements of planets and stars in the galaxies. Extracting results for these gigantic events involve volume computational work, which puts tremendous pressure on human mind. A human mind has certain limits and cannot be pushed beyond that and hence as we know necessity is the mother of invention so came the artificial intelligence to cope up with this issue. Systems were developed that possessed certain kind of intelligence similar to that of human brain. It deals with the basic understanding of artificial intelligence and some of its most important aspects, such as expert System Natural language possessing, Neutral networks and Robotics.

Now-a-days manufacturers and service providers are more focused towards automation in every field to meet consumer satisfaction. Consumers on the other hand are enjoying automation in each work. From being involved in a car manufacturing industry to serving guests in a hotel.

Artificial intelligence is basically a computer science focused towards making machines behaving intelligently.  For Artificial Intelligence there is no general and concise acceptable definition available understanding artificial intelligence is difficult task official internet intelligence have to sustain a claim that it is fine generally acceptable destination shall be needed. On one point we can say that the future of humanity is brighter with the advances been done in artificial intelligence whereas on the other point with the advances in artificial intelligence the humanness in the society is Fastly becoming extent. Artificial intelligence has enormous degree of the humanizing effects contrary to the expectations of some early research in this field. By creating such types of machines, the unknown areas of brain can also be unlocked through which various philosophical solutions can be found.

Three distinct approaches were discovered by Masoud Yazdani.  First one is that AI is about moving computers into the space above, second stimulating human behaviour and cognitive process on a computer and third the pace of study of nature of the intelligent minds.

The definition of Marvin Minsky is one of the widely accepted definitions, “AI is the science of making machines do things that would require intelligence done by men.”[7] But as per this definition it is difficult for AI to make a grade in science keeping it rather a piece of technology. Margaret A Boden said that AI is the study of computer programs.[8] Though she advocates AI is not the only study of computations[9] but the study of intelligence in thoughts and actions. [10] Such tools help to study about the thinking procedure and epistemological structure employed by the intelligent creatures. Some people also define it as an engineering discipline.[11]

 AI is basically making computers do something’s at which human currently have better holds.  AI is yet developing and aims to reach to a level of intelligence exhibited by humans. Ai is defined by Barr and Feigenbaum as “the part of computer science concerned with designing the intelligent computer system, that is, system that exhibit the characteristic we associate with intelligence in human behaviour.”[12]

Humans can easily outperform computers in activities involving intelligence and thus making computers as intelligent as human beings is the basis of the definition.

Patrick Winston defines intelligence, “defining intelligence takes a semester-long time, and even after that I am not sure, we ever get a definition nailed down.”[13]  Hence there is no common and generally accepted definition of intelligence, but it has some characteristics associated with it like memory, pattern recognition, goal seeking behaviour, problem solving ability, etc.

Douglas Hofstadter gave some essential abilities for intelligence: –

  1. To flexibly respond to stimulus.
  2. Interpret contradictory or ambiguous message.
  3. Recognizing different elements in a situation.
  4. Finding similarities in situations that may otherwise show differences.
  5. Drawing distinctions between situations that may otherwise link them.

Alan Granham said, “AI is an approach to understanding behavior based on the assumption that intelligence can be best analyzed by trying to reproduce it.” [14] AI should neither try to imitate or replace humans.  In nutshell we can say that there is no universally accepted definition for AI.

In the present time, AI is an increasingly driven important technology and business. It as an impact on almost every creation and is being employed all across the world in every field now. The fuel to the growth of AI is the advancement in technology and affordable high computing power along with large amount of training data.

In recent times, the development of new neural networks techniques and hardware have perceived the synonym of AI for, “deep supervised machine learning.”

WIPO is continuing and continuing to develop its own management services and tools using AI technologies, creating best-in-class applications of AI for the international IP system. WIPO Translate and WIPO brand image search, uses AI based applications for automated and translation of image recognition, being two examples of AI technologies.

Use of AI technology: –

  • Automatic classifications of patents and goods/services for trademark applications
  • Search of patent prior art and figurative elements of trademark.
  • Examination and formalities check.
  • Helpdesk services
  • Machine translation.

All around the world several IP offices have deployed various AI applications. The Advanced Technology Applications Centre (ATAC) leads WIPO’s research on enhancing functions and processes at the organization.

[1]“Karl R. Popper and John C. Eccles, “The Self and its Brain” 29 (3) British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 265-273 (1986).

[2]Pamela McCordock, Machines who Think (Freeman, New York, 1979).

[3]P. Ray and S.N. Sen (eds.), The Cultural heritage Of India, 6, 59 (The Rakrishna Mission Institute of Culture, Calcutta, 1986).

[4]Peter Tompkins and Christopher Bari, The Secret Life of Plants 81-96 (Penguin, USA, 1974).

[5]Aurthur W. Ryder &PanchTantra, In the Wake of Theory (Jaico publishing House, Bombay, 1992).

[6]Richard L. Gregory, Odd Perceptions 67 (Routledge Kegan & Paul, 1981).

[7]Masoud Yazdani (ed.), Artificial intelligence: Principles and Applications 3 (Chapman and Hall, London, 1986).

[8]M.L. Minsky (ed.), The Sematic Information and Processing 5 (MIT Press, 1986).

[9]P J Hayes, “Some Comments on Sir James Lighthill’s Report on Artificial Intelligence” 14 AISB Study Group European Newsletter 40 (July, 1973).”

[10]Richard L. Gregory (ed.), The Oxford Companion to The Mind 48(Oxford University Press, 1987).”

[11]N.J. Nilson, Problem Solving Methods in Artificial Intelligence 7(Mc Graw-Hill, New York, 1971).”

[12]Avon Bar & Edward A. Feigenbaum, The Handbook of artificial intelligence 3(William Kaufman, Los Altos, CA, 1982).”

[13]Pattrick H. Winston & Karen A. Prendergast (eds.), The AI Business 9 (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1984).”

[14]Alan Garnham, Artificial Intelligence 73 (Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1987).