Trending: Call for Papers Volume 4 | Issue 3: International Journal of Advanced Legal Research [ISSN: 2582-7340]



Criminal behavior is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that has intrigued scholars, psychologists, sociologists, and law enforcement professionals for centuries. This abstract provides a concise overview of key perspectives and factors contributing to the understanding of criminal behavior. The discussion encompasses both individual and societal influences, acknowledging the interplay between biological, psychological, and social determinants. Exploring the biological dimensions, genetic predispositions, and neurobiological factors shed light on how innate characteristics may contribute to criminal inclinations. The intricate interplay of these internal factors is crucial for comprehending the underlying mechanisms that drive individuals toward criminal acts. On a societal level, the impact of social and environmental factors cannot be overstated. Socioeconomic status, family dynamics, peer influences, and community characteristics all play pivotal roles in shaping an individual’s propensity for criminal behavior. The abstract also discusses the importance of understanding the cultural and historical context, which can significantly influence societal norms and values, consequently impacting the prevalence and nature of criminal activities. Furthermore, the abstract highlights the evolving nature of criminal behavior in the digital age, where advancements in technology present new challenges and opportunities for criminal enterprises. The role of globalization and its impact on organized crime is explored, emphasizing the need for adaptive law enforcement strategies to address the changing landscape of criminal activities. In conclusion, this abstract synthesizes various perspectives to underscore the intricate web of factors contributing to criminal behavior. By integrating insights from biology, psychology, and sociology, a more comprehensive understanding emerges, paving the way for holistic approaches to prevention, intervention, and rehabilitation. This nuanced understanding is essential for policymakers, law enforcement agencies, and researchers aiming to develop effective strategies to address and mitigate the complexities of criminal behavior in contemporary society.

KEYWORDS: Criminal behavior, factors, impact, rehabilitation.


Criminal behavior is a multifaceted and intricate phenomenon that has perplexed scholars, researchers, and law enforcement professionals for centuries[1]. The study of why individuals engage in criminal activities is crucial not only for the pursuit of justice but also for the development of effective prevention and intervention strategies.Criminal behavior, a perennially perplexing facet of human existence, has captivated the attention of scholars, policymakers, and law enforcement professionals throughout history. The exploration of why individuals engage in activities that violate societal norms is not merely an academic pursuit; it is a critical endeavor with profound implications for justice, public safety, and the overall well-being of communities. This introduction sets the stage for a comprehensive journey into the multifaceted dimensions that underpin our understanding of criminal behavior, delving into the intricate interplay of biological, psychological, and societal factors.

In unraveling the complexities of criminal behavior, we embark on a quest to comprehend the inner workings of the human mind, the influence of genetic predispositions, the role of environmental factors, and the dynamic interplay between individual choices and societal structures. As we navigate this terrain, it becomes evident that criminal behavior is not a monolithic entity but a tapestry woven from a myriad of threads, each contributing to the intricate patterns that define deviance from established norms.

This exploration encompasses the latest insights from fields as diverse as genetics, neurobiology, psychology, sociology, and criminology[2]. From the microscopic examination of genetic markers to the macroscopic analysis of societal dynamics, our understanding of criminal behavior evolves, challenging preconceived notions and demanding a nuanced perspective that acknowledges the interconnectedness of various influences.

As we delve into the pages of this exploration, we confront questions that resonate through the corridors of academia and courtrooms alike. What role do genetic factors play in predisposing individuals to criminal tendencies? How do neurobiological processes shape behavior, and what impact do they have on an individual’s propensity for criminality? In what ways do societal structures, family dynamics, and peer influences contribute to the manifestation of criminal behavior?

Moreover, in an era marked by rapid technological advancement and unprecedented global connectivity, we grapple with the emergence of new forms of criminality. Cybercrimes, organized transnational enterprises, and the challenges posed by an interconnected world add layers of complexity to the age-old question of why some individuals traverse the path of criminal behavior.

This exploration is not merely an intellectual exercise; it is a call to action. As we gain insights into the roots of criminal behavior, we are better equipped to design targeted prevention strategies, implement effective intervention programs, and foster rehabilitation efforts that address the underlying causes. By understanding criminal behavior in its entirety, we empower ourselves to navigate the evolving landscape of justice and law enforcement with wisdom, compassion, and a commitment to fostering safer, more resilient societies.

 This article aims to explore the various dimensions that contribute to our understanding of criminal behavior, encompassing biological, psychological, and societal factors[3].


The history of criminal behavior and crime is a complex and multifaceted narrative that spans the entirety of human existence. From ancient civilizations to modern societies, the study of criminal behavior has evolved, reflecting changes in cultural, economic, and legal landscapes. Early forms of criminal justice were often rooted in retribution and were deeply intertwined with religious beliefs. In ancient Mesopotamia, for example, the Code of Ur-Nammu (circa 2100-2050 BCE) prescribed specific penalties for various offenses, emphasizing the concept of “an eye for an eye.” The Greco-Roman era introduced the idea of proportionality in punishment, laying the foundation for later legal systems. The Middle Ages witnessed the emergence of trial by ordeal and trial by combat, reflecting a belief in divine intervention. The Renaissance marked a shift towards humanism and a more rational approach to crime, with thinkers like Cesare Beccaria advocating for fair and humane punishment. The Industrial Revolution and urbanization in the 19th century brought new challenges, including rising crime rates and the need for systematic law enforcement. The 20th century saw significant advancements in criminology, with scholars exploring the sociological, psychological, and economic factors influencing criminal behavior.


When conducting research on biological determinants for criminal behavior, it’s essential to explore various factors related to genetics and neurobiology that may influence an individual’s propensity for engaging in criminal activities[4]. Here are key biological determinants to consider for your research paper:

  1. Genetic Predispositions: Investigate the role of genetics in criminal behavior by examining family, twin, and adoption studies. Explore the heritability of criminal tendencies and the identification of specific genes or genetic markers associated with an increased risk of engaging in criminal activities.
  2. Neurobiological Factors: Examine the neurobiological underpinnings of criminal behavior, considering brain structure and function. Investigate abnormalities in specific brain regions, neurotransmitter systems (e.g., serotonin, dopamine), and the impact of these factors on impulse control, decision-making, and aggression.
  3. Neuropsychological Conditions: Investigate the link between neuropsychological conditions and criminal behavior. Explore how conditions such as traumatic brain injuries, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or other cognitive impairments may contribute to an increased likelihood of engaging in criminal activities.
  4. Hormonal Influences: Examine the influence of hormones, such as testosterone, on criminal behavior. Investigate how hormonal imbalances, particularly during critical developmental stages, may impact aggression, risk-taking behavior, and other traits associated with criminal tendencies.
  5. Evolutionary Psychology: Consider evolutionary perspectives on criminal behavior. Explore how certain traits that may be associated with criminality could have been adaptive in ancestral environments and investigate how evolutionary pressures may have shaped human behavior in ways relevant to criminal conduct.
  6. Gene-Environment Interactions: Investigate the interaction between genetic predispositions and environmental factors. Explore how gene-environment interactions contribute to the development of criminal behavior, emphasizing the importance of considering both nature and nurture.
  7. Biosocial Criminology: Examine the principles of biosocial criminology, which integrates biological and sociological factors in understanding criminal behavior. Investigate how the interplay between genetic vulnerabilities and environmental stressors contributes to the manifestation of criminal tendencies.
  8. Adoption and Twin Studies: Analyze adoption and twin studies to discern the influence of genetics versus environment. Investigate how individuals with a genetic predisposition to criminal behavior may express these tendencies differently based on the environment in which they are raised[5].
  9. Neurodevelopmental Factors: Explore the impact of neurodevelopmental factors on criminal behavior. Investigate how disruptions in early brain development, such as fetal exposure to substances or perinatal complications, may contribute to an increased risk of criminal involvement later in life.
  10. Psychophysiological Markers: Investigate psychophysiological markers associated with criminal behavior. Explore the role of factors like heart rate variability, skin conductance, and other physiological indicators in understanding the emotional and arousal responses linked to criminal conduct.

When conducting your research, it’s crucial to approach the topic with a nuanced perspective, recognizing that the interaction between biological determinants, psychological factors, and societal influences is complex. Integrating findings from genetics, neurobiology, and related fields will contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the biological dimensions of criminal behavior.


When delving into the psychological dimensions of criminal behavior for a research paper, it’s crucial to explore various factors that contribute to an individual’s propensity for engaging in unlawful activities. Here are key psychological dimensions to consider[6]:

  1. Personality Traits: Investigate the role of personality traits in criminal behavior. Traits such as impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and low agreeableness have been associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in criminal activities. Utilize established personality frameworks like the Big Five personality traits to analyze how individual differences may contribute to criminal tendencies.
  2. Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD): Explore the psychological dimensions of psychopathy and ASPD, both of which are linked to persistent patterns of criminal behavior. Investigate the presence of traits such as lack of empathy, remorse, and a tendency towards manipulative behavior in individuals with these disorders.
  3. Cognitive Processes: Examine cognitive processes, including decision-making, problem-solving, and impulse control, as contributors to criminal behavior. Impaired cognitive functions may lead individuals to make choices that are conducive to criminal activities. Investigate how cognitive deficits or biases may influence criminal decision-making[7].
  4. Mental Health Conditions: Investigate the relationship between various mental health conditions and criminal behavior. Disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and substance use disorders have been associated with an increased risk of criminal involvement. Consider the complexity of this relationship, acknowledging bidirectional influences.
  5. Trauma and Childhood Adversity: Explore the psychological impact of trauma and childhood adversity on criminal behavior. Investigate how adverse experiences, such as abuse or neglect, may contribute to the development of maladaptive coping mechanisms and increase the risk of criminal conduct later in life.
  6. Behavioral Conditioning: Consider how behavioral conditioning processes may contribute to criminal behavior. Analyze how environmental cues, reinforcement, and punishment mechanisms may shape an individual’s behavior, reinforcing criminal tendencies or deterring prosocial conduct.
  7. Self-Control and Impulsivity: Investigate the role of self-control and impulsivity in criminal behavior. Low self-control has been identified as a significant predictor of criminal involvement. Explore how deficits in self-regulation may lead individuals to engage in impulsive and potentially criminal actions.
  8. Attachment and Relationship Dynamics: Examine attachment theory and the influence of early relationship dynamics on criminal behavior. Investigate how disruptions in attachment during childhood may contribute to interpersonal difficulties and increase the risk of engaging in criminal activities.
  9. Coping Mechanisms: Analyze how individuals employ coping mechanisms to deal with stress and adversity, and how maladaptive coping strategies may lead to criminal behavior. Investigate the relationship between psychological distress and criminal conduct[8].
  10. Social Learning and Modeling: Explore the psychological dimensions of social learning theory, examining how individuals acquire criminal behavior through observation and modeling. Investigate the role of influential figures in an individual’s life and how they may contribute to the development of criminal attitudes and behaviors.
  11. Impression Management and Stigmatization: Investigate how individuals manage impressions to navigate societal expectations and the potential stigmatization associated with criminal behavior. Analyze the impact of societal labels on self-perception and behavior.

When conducting your research, it’s essential to consider the complex interplay between these psychological dimensions and other factors such as biological influences, societal conditions, and environmental contexts. A comprehensive understanding of the psychological dimensions of criminal behavior contributes to the development of effective prevention, intervention, and rehabilitation strategies.


The Societal influences on criminal behaviorplay a crucial role in shaping the ways individuals interact with their environment and, consequently, their likelihood of engaging in criminal activities. Examining these influences provides insights into the broader social structures, norms, and dynamics that contribute to the development and persistence of criminal behavior[9]. Here are key aspects to consider when researching societal influences on criminal behavior:

  1. Socioeconomic Status (SES): Research consistently demonstrates a correlation between lower socioeconomic status and an increased likelihood of criminal involvement. Individuals facing economic disadvantage may encounter limited access to education, employment opportunities, and social resources, contributing to a higher risk of resorting to criminal activities as a means of survival or advancement[10].
  2. Family Dynamics: The family is a primary socializing agent, and dysfunctional family dynamics can significantly impact an individual’s likelihood of engaging in criminal behavior. Factors such as parental criminality, abuse, neglect, and inconsistent discipline contribute to the development of deviant behavior patterns.
  3. Peer Influences: Peer relationships, particularly during adolescence, play a pivotal role in shaping behavior. Delinquent peer groups and the influence of social networks can significantly increase the likelihood of an individual engaging in criminal activities. Understanding the dynamics of peer influence is crucial for preventive interventions.
  4. Community Characteristics: The characteristics of the community in which an individual resides can impact their exposure to crime and criminal influences. High-crime neighborhoods, limited social cohesion, and lack of community resources contribute to an environment where criminal behavior may become normalized.
  5. Cultural and Historical Context: Cultural norms and historical legacies influence societal attitudes toward crime and justice. Understanding how cultural factors shape perceptions of criminality and influence the effectiveness of legal systems is essential. Cultural variations in definitions of deviance and justice should be considered in a comprehensive analysis.
  6. Media and Technology: The media, including television, film, and online platforms, can influence perceptions of crime and contribute to the glorification or normalization of criminal behavior. Media portrayal may shape individuals’ attitudes and behaviors, impacting their understanding of social norms and acceptable conduct.
  7. Educational Systems: Access to quality education and the effectiveness of educational systems can impact an individual’s life trajectory. Inadequate educational opportunities may limit future prospects, potentially leading to criminal involvement[11]. Examining the relationship between education and criminal behavior is essential for developing targeted interventions.
  8. Institutional Discrimination: Systemic discrimination and disparities within societal institutions, such as the criminal justice system, may contribute to criminal behavior[12]. Racial and socioeconomic inequalities in policing, sentencing, and incarceration rates highlight the need to address systemic issues that perpetuate criminalization.
  9. Political and Economic Factors: Broader political and economic structures can contribute to criminal behavior. Political instability, corruption, and economic inequalities may create an environment conducive to criminal activities such as corruption, fraud, and organized crime.
  10. Legislation and Legal Systems: The effectiveness and fairness of legal systems impact individuals’ perceptions of justice and their likelihood of engaging in criminal behavior. Unjust or inadequate legal systems may contribute to a lack of trust in institutions and adherence to societal norms.

Understanding the societal influences on criminal behavior requires a holistic examination of the interconnected factors that contribute to the complex phenomenon of crime. Research in this area contributes not only to academic knowledge but also informs policy and intervention strategies aimed at addressing the root causes of criminal conduct within communities.

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Exploring contemporary challenges related to criminal behavior for a research involves investigating emerging issues that have evolved in response to technological advancements, globalization, and shifting societal dynamics[13]. Here are key contemporary challenges to consider:

  1. Cybercrime and Technology: Examine the impact of technology on criminal behavior, focusing on cybercrime. Investigate how advancements in technology, including the dark web, cryptocurrency, and hacking techniques, present new challenges for law enforcement and contribute to the evolution of criminal enterprises.
  2. Online Exploitation and Cybersecurity: Explore the psychological and societal dimensions of online exploitation, such as cyberbullying, online fraud, and human trafficking facilitated through digital platforms. Analyze the challenges of maintaining cybersecurity and protecting individuals from various forms of online victimization.
  3. Globalization and Transnational Crime: Investigate the role of globalization in facilitating transnational criminal activities. Examine how criminal organizations take advantage of interconnected economies and jurisdictions, engaging in activities such as drug trafficking, human smuggling, and money laundering on a global scale.
  4. Terrorism and Extremism: Analyze the psychological and sociopolitical factors contributing to terrorism and extremism. Explore how individuals are radicalized online, the role of social media in spreading extremist ideologies, and the challenges of countering these threats in an interconnected world.
  5. White-Collar Crime: Explore contemporary challenges related to white-collar crime, such as corporate fraud, insider trading, and corruption. Investigate how globalization and complex financial systems contribute to the perpetration and detection of white-collar crimes.
  6. Digital Forensics and Evidence: Examine the challenges and advancements in digital forensics for investigating cybercrimes. Investigate how the use of digital evidence in criminal cases presents legal and technological challenges, including issues related to privacy and data integrity.
  7. Emerging Illicit Markets: Analyze the emergence of new illicit markets, such as those related to synthetic drugs, human organs, and cyberweapons. Investigate how these markets adapt to technological advancements and international law enforcement efforts[14].
  8. Policing in the Digital Age: Explore the challenges law enforcement faces in adapting to the digital age. Investigate the use of artificial intelligence, predictive policing algorithms, and other technologies in crime prevention and law enforcement, considering ethical and privacy concerns.
  9. Human Rights and Criminal Justice: Investigate the challenges related to protecting human rights within the criminal justice system. Examine issues such as police brutality, mass surveillance, and the fair treatment of individuals involved in cybercrime cases.
  10. Mental Health and Criminality: Explore the contemporary challenges associated with the intersection of mental health and criminal behavior. Investigate how societal attitudes, access to mental health resources, and the criminalization of mental health issues impact individuals with mental health disorders within the criminal justice system.
  11. Environmental Crimes: Examine crimes related to environmental degradation, illegal wildlife trade, and pollution. Investigate the challenges of enforcing environmental laws and the global impact of these criminal activities on ecosystems and communities.
  12. Disinformation and Cyber Warfare: Explore how disinformation campaigns and cyber warfare contribute to criminal activities. Investigate the use of misinformation to influence political events, destabilize nations, and manipulate public opinion.

Addressing these contemporary challenges requires interdisciplinary research and collaboration among experts in criminology, law, technology, psychology, and sociology[15]. Analyzing the psychological and societal dimensions of these issues can inform policy and intervention strategies to effectively address the evolving landscape of criminal behavior.

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  1. Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration: Foster collaboration between researchers and professionals from diverse disciplines such as genetics, neurobiology, psychology, sociology, and criminology. Establishing interdisciplinary research teams can facilitate a comprehensive understanding of criminal behavior, breaking down silos and encouraging the exchange of insights and methodologies.
  2. Longitudinal Studies: Support and invest in longitudinal studies that track individuals over extended periods. Such studies provide valuable data on the developmental trajectories of criminal behavior, offering insights into the dynamic interplay of genetic, environmental, and individual factors over time.
  3. Community-Based Research: Conduct research that is embedded in and responsive to communities. Community-based studies can provide a contextual understanding of the social dynamics contributing to criminal behavior, and involve communities in the development of effective prevention and intervention strategies.
  4. Early Intervention Programs: Develop and implement early intervention programs that target at-risk individuals during key developmental stages. Investing in education, mental health support, and community resources can help mitigate risk factors and steer individuals away from a path of criminal behavior.
  5. Crisis Intervention Training for Law Enforcement: Provide comprehensive crisis intervention training for law enforcement officers to enhance their understanding of mental health issues. This can contribute to improved interactions with individuals in crisis, reducing the likelihood of unnecessary escalations and criminalization of mental health-related behaviors.
  6. Technology and Cybersecurity Education: Integrate education on technology and cybersecurity into school curricula and law enforcement training programs. Enhancing public awareness and understanding of the risks associated with technology can contribute to the prevention of cybercrimes and online exploitation.
  7. Rehabilitative Justice Policies: Advocate for rehabilitative justice policies that prioritize rehabilitation over punitive measures. Support initiatives that focus on addressing the root causes of criminal behavior, providing education, vocational training, and mental health support to individuals within the criminal justice system.
  8. Cultural Competency Training: Implement cultural competency training for law enforcement and criminal justice professionals. Understanding diverse cultural perspectives is crucial for fair and effective interactions with individuals from different backgrounds, reducing the risk of bias and discriminatory practices.
  9. Global Collaboration against Organized Crime: Encourage international collaboration and information-sharing to combat organized crime on a global scale. Coordinated efforts between law enforcement agencies from different countries are essential for addressing transnational criminal enterprises and their activities.
  10. Public Awareness Campaigns: Launch public awareness campaigns to educate the general population about the factors contributing to criminal behavior. Increasing public understanding can reduce stigma associated with certain conditions, promote empathy, and garner support for evidence-based policies.
  11. Policy Reform: Advocate for policy reforms that address systemic issues contributing to criminal behavior, such as socioeconomic disparities and inequities in education and healthcare. Policy changes should aim to create a more just and inclusive society, addressing the root causes of criminality.
  12. Continued Research and Adaptation: Acknowledge the evolving nature of criminal behavior and commit to ongoing research to stay abreast of emerging challenges. Encourage a culture of adaptation within law enforcement, policymaking, and research communities to effectively address new forms of criminality in the ever-changing global landscape.


In the labyrinthine exploration of understanding criminal behavior, our multidimensional analysis has unveiled a rich tapestry woven from the threads of biology, psychology, and societal influences. The intricate interplay of these factors challenges simplistic narratives, urging us to adopt a nuanced perspective that recognizes the complexity of human conduct.

From the microscopic examination of genetic markers to the macroscopic scrutiny of societal structures, our journey into the heart of criminal behavior has revealed that it is not a monolithic entity but a dynamic interplay of forces. Biological determinants, encompassing genetic predispositions and neurobiological factors, provide windows into the intricate workings of the human mind, illuminating the pathways that may lead individuals toward or away from criminality. Psychological dimensions, including personality traits, cognitive processes, and the impact of mental health conditions, add layers of complexity to our understanding. The kaleidoscope of human behavior reflects a spectrum of personalities and experiences, each contributing to the mosaic of criminal tendencies in unique ways.

Societal influences, an ever-evolving backdrop, underscore that criminal behavior is not isolated within the individual but is embedded in the fabric of communities and cultures. The intricate dance between socioeconomic status, family dynamics, peer influences, and cultural norms shapes the environment in which criminal narratives unfold.

As we stand at the nexus of these dimensions, the contemporary challenges of the digital age loom large. Cybercrimes, transnational enterprises, and the complex interplay of technology and criminality beckon us to adapt our understanding to the ever-changing landscape. In this era of globalization and interconnectedness, where information flows seamlessly across borders, the challenges of policing, preventing, and understanding criminal behavior have taken on new dimensions[16].

Our journey concludes not with finality but with an acknowledgment of the perpetual evolution of the criminal landscape. The call to action echoes through the corridors of research, policy, and practice. To understand criminal behavior is not merely an academic pursuit but a commitment to building safer, more just societies.

Armed with insights into the biological, psychological, and societal dimensions, we are better equipped to design targeted prevention strategies, implement effective intervention programs, and foster rehabilitation efforts that address the root causes of criminal behavior. Our understanding is not static; it is a living organism that must adapt to the challenges of the present and the uncertainties of the future.

In this multifaceted analysis, we find not only the enigma of criminal behavior but also the potential for transformative change. As we navigate the complex interplay of forces shaping human conduct, we move toward a future where justice is not merely punitive but rehabilitative, where prevention is proactive, and where understanding is the bedrock upon which resilient, compassionate societies are built. Our journey may have reached a conclusion, but the quest to unravel the mysteries of criminal behavior continues, beckoning us to venture further into the uncharted territories of the human psyche and societal dynamics.

[1] Natella S, Exploring Criminology: Understanding the Causes, Consequences, and Interventions of Criminal Behavior, J Civil Legal Sci 12: 393, 1. (last accessed on 28-11.2023 at 08:01 PM).

[2] Id.

[3]Bernfeld JJS (2007) States Ships and Secondary Registries: Examining Sovereignty and Standard in a Globalized World. Cardiff University UK1-24.

[4] Karla Sapp, Multifacted Nature of Criminal Behavior, Understanding  offending Population and the Power of Correctional Psychotherapy, pp. 7.

[5] Supra Note 1.

[6] Laurence Miller, Psychological Theories of Criminal Behaviour, Handbook of Behavioral Criminology, pp 43.

[7] Id. at 45.

[8] Id at 46.

[9]Causes of Criminal Behaviour, available at : https://sites.psu.edu/aspsy/2021/10/14/what-causes-criminal-behavior/ (last visited on 29.11.2023 at 10:30 AM).

[10] Id.

[11] Sociological Theories of Crime, Available at : https://www.nu.edu/blog/sociological-theories-of-crime/ (last accessed on 28-11-2023 at 02:35PM).

[12] Supra note at 9.

[13] Influences of Criminal Behaviour, available at : https://www.waldenu.edu/online-bachelors-programs/bs-in-criminal-justice/resource/what-influences-criminal-behavior (last visited on 30-11-2023 at 11:33 AM).

[14] Strength and Weakness of Criminal Conduct, available at : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34655101/ (last visited on 30-11-2023 at 01:45 PM).

[15]Major Criminology Theories, available at :  https://onlinedegrees.kent.edu/sociology/criminal-justice/community/criminal-behavior-theories (last visited on 30-11-2023 at 03:45 PM).

[16] Current Perspective of Criminal Behaviour https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/current-perspectives-in-forensic-psychology-and-criminal-behavior/book240251 (last visited on 29.11.2023 at 10:45 AM).