Trending: Call for Papers Volume 4 | Issue 4: International Journal of Advanced Legal Research [ISSN: 2582-7340]



Promoting innovation in the autonomous vehicle industry. It would address the current issues of regulatory fragmentation and ensure that public safety remains a top priority.

Collaboration among federal agencies, state governments, industry leaders, advocacy groups, and the public is essential in crafting and implementing this federal framework. Transparency throughout the regulatory process is crucial to building public trust and ensuring that safety assessments and standards are clearly communicated.

The development of autonomous vehicles holds great promise for transportation but also poses significant challenges. The Uber incident serves as a catalyst for much-needed improvements in safety and regulation. By working together and establishing a comprehensive federal framework, we can pave the way for a safer, more efficient, and innovative future of autonomous transportation.


The emergence of autonomous vehicles (AVs) represents a revolutionary moment in transportation history. With the promise of reducing accidents, increasing efficiency, and revolutionizing urban mobility, AVs hold immense potential. However, they also raise complex questions about regulation, safety, and accountability. In this opinion piece, we will delve into the recent findings of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) regarding a fatal collision involving an Uber-owned autonomous vehicle in Arizona. We will explore the implications of these findings and the broader challenges facing the independent vehicle industry as it navigates the delicate balance between innovation and accountability.

The Uber Incident: A Tragic Reminder

On March 18, 2018, the world was jolted by news of a fatal accident involving an autonomous vehicle operated by Uber in Tempe, Arizona. A modified Volvo XC90 struck and killed a pedestrian, Elaine Herzberg, as she walked her bicycle across the road. The incident sent shockwaves through the autonomous vehicle industry and prompted an 18-month investigation by the NTSB.

The NTSB’s investigation revealed several critical factors leading to the collision. First and foremost, the vehicle operator, who was meant to supervise the autonomous system, could have been more attentive. Video footage from the vehicle’s inward-facing camera showed that the operator was looking away from the road moments before the crash. The operator only looked up one second before impact, which was too late to prevent the collision.

This revelation underscores the significant role of human oversight in the current state of autonomous driving technology. It exposes the concept of “automation complacency,” wherein operators become less attentive and engaged when they rely on automation. The NTSB rightly concludes that had the operator been vigilant, she could have likely avoided the crash or mitigated its impact.

Uber’s Failures and Regulatory Concerns

The NTSB report goes beyond operator negligence to critique Uber’s approach to autonomous vehicle testing. It highlights Uber’s failure to effectively recognize and address the risk of automation complacency. This includes inadequate safety risk assessment procedures and a need for more oversight of vehicle operators.

Furthermore, the report points out that these deficiencies were exacerbated by Uber’s decision to remove the second vehicle operator during testing. This action increased the risk associated with autonomous vehicle operations, given the potential for operator inattention or complacency.

In light of these findings, it is evident that Uber’s approach to testing and deploying autonomous vehicles lacked the rigor required to ensure public safety. The incident is a stark reminder of independent vehicle manufacturers’ ethical and safety responsibilities. It raises important questions about whether the rush to develop and deploy this transformative technology compromises safety.

NTSB Recommendations and the Call for Mandatory Self-Assessment Reports

A significant recommendation from the NTSB’s findings is the call for mandatory safety self-assessment reports before autonomous vehicles can be tested on public roads. This recommendation aligns with the growing consensus that the current voluntary guidelines, which rely on manufacturers to self-certify their cars, must be revised.

Under this proposed framework, entities testing or deploying autonomous vehicles must submit comprehensive safety self-assessment reports. These reports would provide a detailed account of the safety measures, systems, and procedures in place to ensure the safe operation of autonomous vehicles.

This recommendation is a significant step forward in enhancing transparency and accountability in the autonomous vehicle industry. It recognizes that the technology’s rapid development requires a corresponding commitment to safety. Mandatory self-assessment reports can serve as a valuable tool for regulators and the public to assess the readiness and safety of autonomous vehicles.

The Issue of Regulatory Fragmentation

While the NTSB’s recommendations are essential to improving safety in the autonomous vehicle industry, they also highlight a broader challenge: regulatory fragmentation. The regulation of autonomous vehicles in the United States is a patchwork of state-level laws and voluntary federal guidelines.

This fragmentation creates a range of challenges:

  1. Inconsistencies: Different states have varying rules and regulations governing autonomous vehicles, leading to confusion and uncertainty for manufacturers and consumers. This inconsistency hampers the development of a cohesive industry.
  2. Barriers to Testing: Autonomous vehicle manufacturers often face logistical challenges when conducting tests in multiple states with different rules. This can slow down the development process and hinder innovation.
  3. Safety Concerns: The lack of a unified regulatory framework raises questions about whether safety standards are being consistently upheld nationwide. It also creates opportunities for manufacturers to choose jurisdictions with less stringent regulations, potentially compromising safety.
  4. Legal Complexity: Autonomous vehicle manufacturers must navigate a complex web of state and federal regulations, which can be time-consuming and costly.
  5. Economic Impact: Regulatory fragmentation can impede economic growth in the autonomous vehicle sector. More clarity and consistency can encourage investment and help job creation.

Given these challenges, it is clear that a more comprehensive federal regulatory framework is needed to ensure the safe development and deployment of autonomous vehicles. Such a framework would provide clarity, consistency, and accountability, addressing the issues associated with regulatory fragmentation.

The Importance of a Federal Framework

A federal framework for autonomous vehicles would have several key advantages:

  1. Uniform Standards: A federal framework would establish consistent safety standards and regulations across all states, eliminating the confusion caused by varying state laws.
  2. Enhanced Accountability: Federal oversight ensures manufacturers adhere to robust safety protocols and guidelines. This would enhance public trust in autonomous vehicles.
  3. Efficiency: A federal framework would streamline the regulatory process for manufacturers, reducing the burden of navigating multiple state regulations.
  4. Innovation: By providing a clear and consistent regulatory environment, a federal framework would promote innovation by reducing uncertainty and encouraging investment in autonomous vehicle technology.
  5. Safety: The primary objective of any regulatory framework should be the public’s safety. A federal framework would prioritize safety by establishing stringent standards and accountability measures.

The Need for Collaboration

Developing a federal regulatory framework for autonomous vehicles is a complex and multifaceted task requiring collaboration among various stakeholders. These stakeholders include federal agencies, state governments, industry leaders, advocacy groups, and the public.

Critical steps in the development of such a framework would include:

  1. Federal Leadership: Federal agencies, particularly the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), should lead in crafting and implementing federal regulations for autonomous vehicles.
  2. State Cooperation: State governments should work collaboratively with federal agencies to ensure that federal regulations complement state laws and regulations.
  3. Industry Input: Autonomous vehicle manufacturers and technology companies should actively engage with regulators to provide expertise and input on safety standards and regulations.
  4. Advocacy and Public Input: Advocacy groups and the public should have opportunities to provide input and voice their concerns throughout the regulatory process.
  5. Transparency: The regulatory process should be transparent, communicating safety assessments and standards clearly.


The tragic incident involving an Uber-owned autonomous vehicle in Arizona serves as a sobering reminder of the challenges and responsibilities that come with the development and deployment of autonomous vehicles. It underscores the critical role of human supervision and the need for robust safety protocols.

The NTSB’s recommendations, particularly the call for mandatory safety self-assessment reports, represent a positive step toward greater transparency and accountability in the industry. However, these recommendations also highlight the pressing need for a comprehensive federal regulatory framework.

Such a framework would provide uniform standards, enhance safety, and streamline the regulatory process.


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