Public interest litigation (PIL) is a legal concept that has been used in India to address a wide range of social and environmental issues. PIL allows individuals or organizations to file petitions in court on behalf of the public interest, even if they are not directly affected by the issue. This has allowed PIL to be used to protect the rights of the poor and marginalized, to enforce environmental laws, and to promote sustainable development. Any Indian citizen or organization can move the court for a public interest/cause by filing a petition: In the SC under Article 32. In the High Courts under Article 226. This paper will provide an overview of the meaning and purpose of PIL in India. It will discuss the history of PIL, the legal framework for PIL, and the impact of PIL on social and environmental justice. It discuss the challenges facing PIL that include limited awareness and access, legal complexity and procedural hurdles, judicial backlog, opposition and resistance, funding constraints, difficulties in implementation and enforcement, and concerns regarding judicial activism.and the need to ensure that PIL is not used to further the interests of powerful groups. Increasing public awareness about Public Interest Litigation (PIL) is essential for promoting citizen participation and social justice. To achieve this, educational programs, media engagement, social media campaigns, and collaborations with NGOs and activists can be utilized. Workshops for lawyers, partnerships with bar associations, and sharing case studies and success stories also play a vital role. By implementing these strategies, individuals can be informed about the significance of PIL and empowered to take action in addressing public issues and upholding the interests of the society at large.
KEYWORDS- Public interest litigation, Social justice, Legal mechanism, Public advocacy, Accountability