Trending: Call for Papers Volume 4 | Issue 3: International Journal of Advanced Legal Research [ISSN: 2582-7340]



New conceptualizations of poverty emerging in the social sciences challenge dominant neoliberal, income-based approaches to poverty and examine poverty and social disadvantage from multiple perspectives, considering the lack of resources in areas such as housing markets, employment and family relationships and physical and mental health. Although poverty can also be described as a lack of an individual’s biological and psychological resources, our article mainly examines the sociopolitical and structural reasons behind it. Whether a person is poor is a question of fact. The term “poor person” is not defined in the 1956 Act, the Criminal Procedure Code of 1973 or the Civil Procedure Code of 1908. The dictionary meaning is “without means, lacking the necessities of life.” A person can be considered destitute if he has no fixed residence, apparent means of survival, and no one to keep him company.


Destitution, Industrial Lapse, Civil Procedure Code, Communal, Subsistence


Destitution is one of the most ambitious and significant protests regarding the pace of advancement for our civilisation. Every sum and checklist of the person from a low-income family struggling to survive, society makes it considerable communal cost-effective complication face. Poverty results in environmental, social, and industrial lapse, at variance with every infliction of destitution, which is to be inebriated beyond acceptance of applicable means, with the four corners of code on contrary fronts[1].


It is to import a well-known species of primary substance of progress to address along with discard destitution. This has to do with the expulsion of poverty; the indicated only can help and open up improvement. Accordingly, an obligation originates to identify those who are needy and wish to be advised. Sec 2 (c) of the Poverty Alleviation Fund Act 2063(2006) means an alternative interpretation of living in poor need of every feed of activity as long as a state was also incomplete in supply /insufficiency or absence. Case of the state of living needy and needing capital poverty is every scarcity of essential individual requirements, like in the act of clean and fresh water, subsistence, medical and preventive or healthcare and health maintenance treatment, education or learning facility, clothing, and also shelter home because of individual inability to allow them. This is also more communicated as absolute complete poverty or destitution.[2]


Absolute Poverty VS Relative Poverty Absolute Poverty

It is also known as subsistence poverty and extreme poverty and is based on minimum physical needs such as basic good food, clean water, shelter, clothing, education, health or medical care, etc.. these are usually poverty-developed communities, and societies are quite different. [3]

Relative Poverty

It is the inability to attain a given contemporary standard of living from the social perspective of the standard of living thing measured by income standards and inequality of absolute deprivation. It wants a reasonable and acceptable standard of living and further lifestyle, just as conventions change occasionally. Basic needs and place well may also indicate having fewer resources or less income than others within a society or country compared to worldwide averages.

  • Primary Poverty VS Secondary Poverty

Primary Poverty

It is insufficient to obtain the minimum necessities for the maintenance of mere physical efficiency to live in primary poverty and have a low income to afford basic needs. [4]

Secondary Poverty

Income is sufficient, but allocation could be more efficient due to poor ability. It is not the lack of resources but a problem of insufficient management. It may be illustrated as a household connected to the bill, but the equal is confined over, reasoning as it may be staking, drinking alcohol or smoking, and incompetent housekeeping.


  • persistent Substandard-A folks are comprehensible as persistent substandard if their compensation is under the starvation boundary as together with its children and developed are discomfort taken away hunger every day whichever are down from the compensation scarcity line with at least separate opportunity child decrease in the indicated
  1. Alternative needy Remainder every substandard domiciliary.
  2. Wealthy that belonging stipend is beyond the earnings insufficiency line; this category mentions that it is said to exceed the poverty line (Bearden v. Georgia, 461 U.S. 660(1983).


  1. Harijan

Harijan, Meaning (child of God), was a conversation passed down by Mahatma Gandhi described to a DALITS. He defended that it was misguided to call the nation untouchable under Article 17 of the Indian constitution—these single people were at the primary or further the Hindu caste system. Constitution accepted as schedule caste and division denominated to informational and professional opportunities.

  1. Dalits

Dalits are covered by the untouchable or outcast destitute of the Hindu caste classification. The conventional Hindu civilisation description of the culture associated with activity investigated as procedure combined to the same degree consuming leather performance crime or eviction of waste, entire Dalits were more often than not restricted and illegal from real presence in Hindu Social intercourse.

Garibi Hatao

This turn of phrase, the process of the Hindu doing away with poverty, was the already stated subject matter, and Ms Indira Gandhi used this word along the side of Rajiv Gandhi. The slogan and the connection intended to relieve poverty plan of action focused on agriculture, characterised by poor living circumstances and income in election times in the 19th century.


Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yogjna

The Jawahar gram Samridhiyojana’sprimary purpose is to constitution claim consumed association village framework along with dependable belongings, so a well-known every agricultural destitute can get more all around for long-lived work implementation household way of life under the privation line BPL reimburse jobs under the inventiveness. The growing or advancement unsatisfactory on the part of one population continues to be deprived on all levels.

Food for Work program

The sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana expands every causation of add-to wage implementation and food safety conditional monetary, organised together with group advantage. MGNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Act) is currently a consequential equitable construct implementation bond plan of action in the country.

Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana

Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana’s target provides allowance duties utilisation, evolution of country configuration, and the presentation of long-lived section benefits. This is delivered to district, intermediate, and village panchayat volumes.

National Old Age Pension Scheme

A national social Assistance plan of action is a disability insurance, and public welfare hold up a senior, widowed, unmarried, paralysed, and dispossessed family circle or passing about the income producer. And senior citizens will meet with monthly pension allowance under this pain.

Pradhan MantriJan Dhan Yojana Scheme

The purpose plan of action expands accessibility to the same degree as bank accounts of individuals, credits, indemnification, and annuity. The primary purpose of the scheme is that women have to voluntarily bring an opportunity to a bank account and remake self-independence.

National Food Security Act Indian Economy notes

The National Food Security Act supplies the living cycle of human beings with food and healthful safety. And sufficient sum of first-class food at practicable

Consequence so they can reside a distinguished human being also proceeding correlation to incidental without intention.


The state of being inferior destitution is not the question of a and public or all; nevertheless, there is a complication of the sovereign state also, in the incorporation of insufficiency has been unavoidable for the unobjectionable and supplement under improvement, the community, sovereign state a part of humbly. There are needs of people being human.


  • Landmark Case on poverty Law [Bearden v. Georgia], 461 U.S 660 (1983)
  • Poverty laws development [2nd Edn.2011 (Pb)] chapter 1.
  • Indian constitution of India [Article 14 and Article 21]
  • Laws, Poverty & Development[2nd Edn. 2011(Pb)] Chapter 3.[page. 21, 22]
  • Indian economy [poverty allevation] 25th September 2001
  • National Food Security Act, 2013.

[1] Professors Paul, Manfred Nowak and SiddiqOsmi, [poverty laws]-OHCHR human and poverty reduction HR/PUB/04/01 Dec 2003.

[2] Poverty Alleviation Fund Act,(2006).s 2(c)

[3]Foster, James E. “Absolute versus Relative Poverty.” The American Economic Review, vol. 88, no.2, 1998, pp. 335–41

[4] FREEMAN, MARK. “Seebohm Rowntree and Secondary Poverty, 1899-1954.” The Economic History Review, vol. 64, no.4, 2011, pp. 1175–94