Collective defence is a fundamental instrument in the international politics. If seen, the principle of collective defence is not new, but collective defence is of great importance in international politics, but before understanding its principle, it is necessary to understand its meaning, we mean that collective defence is a type principle that is followed by an organization, this organization should be of more than two countries, in which the countries involved in this organization protect their countries from any attack together. Under this principle, if one country of the organization is attacked, it will be considered an attack on the rest of the countries, along with collective defence, they also promote political, social, economic and cultural cooperation in their organization. After the Second World War, many organizations emerged, such as NATO, SAARC, ASEAN, etc. These organizations also have many objectives, but they had a common purpose that they would protect the allies of their organization together. All organizations wanted to maintain peace and security at the international level. The Soviet Union maintained a balance of power against NATO by creating the Warsaw Pact. All these organizations have been successful in making their own identity in international politics, as a result SAARC is the identity of Asian countries.
By collective security, we mean that if any one allied country is attacked, it will be considered as an attack on other allied countries as well. It is a type of collective ally in which several countries come together to form an organisation and claim collective defence. Thus, after the terrorist attack of 9/11, according to article 5 of the washing treaty, NATO has adopted the principle of collective defence in its history, according to which all the members of NATO claim collective defence among themselves, according to which an attack on an ally would be considered an attack on all other allies. Many of treaty organizations such as NATO follow the principle of collective defence. Like SAARC, SEATO, CENTO and Warsaw Pact etc.
“Collective defense” is system that existence between an organization. The most famous collective defense organization is NATO. It is described in Article 5 of washing treaty. WEU came into existence on 14 march 1948 with the Brussels Treaty as an organization consisting of United Kingdom, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands and Belgium. In 1948, this organization was known as the western union. The only purpose of this organization was to guarantee security to the countries includes in its organization. Its purpose was also to stop the communist movement of the Soviet Union, but during the Korean war (1950-1953), the WEU was transformed into the newly established NATO.
Meaning of collective defence
By collective security, we mean that if any one allied country is attacked, it will be considered as an attack on other allied countries as well.
“Collective defence” is a mutually assured agreement between states on international level in which all states are guaranteed protection from attack. The concepts and policies of all the nations of collective defence must be the same so that it can do collective defence.
Objectives of “collective Defence in international politics”
Some of the main objectives of collective defence are as follows:
- In collective defence, peace and security will be in the interest of all nations and will not be the responsibility of only one country.
- The basic concept of the collective security is to maintain peace and security in all the states.
- In this, all the nations will oppose the possible attack together.
- According to collective security, if there is an attack on any one nation, then that attack will be considered on other states as well.
Collective Defense Organization
“Collective defence” is a mutually assured agreement between states on international level in which all states are guaranteed protection from attack. The concepts and policies of all the nations of collective defence must be the same so that it can do collective defence. In collective defence, peace and security will be in the interest of all nations and will not be the responsibility of only one country. According to the concept of “collective defence” one nation has to sacrifice the opposing nation for the safety of the rest of its nation. Many of treaty organisations such as NATO follow the principle of collective defence.
The following are some of organization adopting the principle of the “collective defence”.
After the terrorist attack of 9/11, according to article 5 of the washing treaty, NATO has adopted the principle of collective defence in its history, according to which all the members of NATO claim collective defence among themselves, according to which an attack on an ally would be considered an attack on all other allies. NATO is a military alliance. It provides security against the soviet union. It was established in April 1949, under the name of the north Atlantic treaty organization. At that time America, Canada and many other western European countries were included. It is also known as the Washington pact.
Members of NATO
presently it consists of 30 members countries which are as follows.
Its member countries are Portugal, Italy, Belgium, Canada, Netherlands, Norway, Luxembourg, Denmark, Iceland, France, the united kingdoms, and the united states but original signatories were Spain, Turkey, Greece, Poland, Albania and Croatia, Hungary, Latvia, Romania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Slovenia, Montenegro, and north Macedonia.
Recently Sweden and Finland have also expressed their interest to join NATO. Its headquarter is located in Brussels, Belgium.
France withdrew from the unified military command of NATO in 1966, although it later joined in 2009.
Objectives of NATO
- The most important objective of the NATO is to protect the security and freedoms of all its countries.
- It promotes democratic values and solves the problems of all its member countries.
- It helps to settles disputes peacefully.
- It promotes a sense of trust among its member countries.
If seen, somewhere SAARC also follows the principle of “collective defence” The south Asian Association for regional cooperation was established on December 1985, with signing of the SAARC charter in Dhaka. Its first meeting was held in Colombia in 1981.
Members of SAARC
It includes 7 members countries which are as follows.
Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Maldives, Bhutan, India, and Sri Lanka. However, Afghanistan becomes the newest member country of SAARC in the later SAARC 13th summit which was held in 2005. The secretariate of this organisation is established in Kathmandu, Nepal.
Objectives of SAARC
Some of the main objectives of SAARC are as follows.
- Its main objective is to improve the quality and welfare of the people of south Asia countries.
- Its aim is to strengthen mutual cooperation on international stage.
- Strengthening cooperation in the economic, social technology and cultural fields.
- It solves the problems of the countries involved in such organization and promotes mutual understanding.
- It also protects the countries involved in its organization.
South Asian Association for regional cooperation (SAARC) has historically been the identity of the people of south Asian countries.
South east Asia treaty organization (SEATO) was the regional defense organization in southeast Asia. It was established in 8 September 1954. It’s headquarter was established in Bangkok Thailand.
Members of SEATO
Some of the countries included in the SEATO are Australia, Thailand, united kingdoms, Philippines, New Zealand, Pakistan and united states of America. It also had some non-member countries like, Laos, khmer republic and south Vietnam.
Objectives of SEATO
Some of main objectives of the SEATO are as follows.
- Its purpose is to stop and Defence from the communist expansionism.
- It purpose was to prevent the expansion of pressure in the world by America and Britain.
- One of its objectives was also protect the countries involved in south east Asia.
Dissolution of SEATO
The dissolution of SEATO took place on 30 june,1977. There were some reasons for its dissolution which are as follows.
- The non-alignment of an Asian country like India was the reason for its disintegration.
- Lack of equal cooperation of the countries involved in this also became the cause of disintegration.
The alliance of central treaty organization (CENTO) was formed on 24 February,1955. Although it was earlier known as Middle East Treaty Organization (METO). It was a cold war alliance and also known as the Baghdad Pact. In 1959, the Iraq was out of this treaty, since then its name was changed to the Central Treaty Organization.
Members of CENTO
It includes 5 members countries are as follows
Its original member countries were Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan and United Kingdom.
Objectives of CENTO
- The countries involved in this will provide mutual cooperation, security and protection.
- To promote oil and other trade in middle east countries.
- It also had an important objective to Protect the oil producing countries from the threat of the Soviet Union during cold war.
- This was a warning to a country like Soviet Union.
- Its purpose was to avoid communist influence.
- Its purpose was also “collective defence”.
Dissolution of Baghdad pact
CENTO was dissolved on 16 march 1979. Its head quarter was in Baghdad.
It was an organization against the NATO that was established on 14 may 1955, under the leadership of the soviet union at Warsaw, Poland. It was a treaty of friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance. It was a military organization. With the collapse of the soviet union in 1991 following the end of the cold war, the treaty was scrapped or dissolved.
Members of Warsaw pact
some of the member countries included in this treaty which are as follows.
East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland and Romania. Although Albania withdrew from this treaty later in 1968. It was established in Warsaw, Poland.
Objectives of Warsaw Pact
- It was treaty of mutual cooperation and security for the soviet union and its allies.
- Its main purpose was to defend the countries included in NATO.
- It was also to increase the cooperation of the countries involved in this treaty.
ASEAN is also a kind of “collective Defence” organization. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is established on 8 august 1967, in Bangkok, Thailand. India has always been keen to cooperate with ASEAN countries and had its first meeting with ASEAN countries in Bangkok. It’s headquarter located on Jakarta, Indonesia. ASEAN has declared itself as a nuclear weapon free zone. In 1992, India become a reginal dialogue partner of ASEAN and 1996 India become a member of the ASEAN Regional Forum.
Members of ASEAN
ASEAN consists of 10 members countries like, Indonesia, Myanmar, Singapore, Brunei, Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and Laos.
Objectives of ASEAN
There are many objectives of ASEAN which are as following
- Its important objective is to maintain territorial integrity and independence.
- In this, the disputes between the participating countries have to be settled peacefully.
- The purpose of this organization is to strengthen economic, cultural and political cooperation.
- And one of its objectives is to protect the countries involved in it.
- ASEAN formed the ARF (Asian regional forum) in 1949 with the aim of promoting security.
Deference between collective security and collective defence
Collective security and collective defense do not have the same meaning. However, it is a collection of both nations that maintain power and security through military power and come together as one. But the difference in the definition of these countries is that Collective Security applies to all countries of the world whereas Collective Defense is an alliance of some countries which is established to avoid attack. According to this system, if there is an attack on any one country of the organization, then it will be considered as an attack on other countries as well. In the system of collective security, the possibility of global war often remains, but in the system of collective defense, the possibilities of world war are less because not all countries participate in this war, only the countries included in the organization participate. In collective security, if any one country is attacked, then all the countries of the world unite and attack that country. In this type of system, all the countries have participation in the war
The conclusion is that organization adopting the principles of collective defence have maintained the balance of power at The International level by making their own identity in international politics. However, with the passage of time some organizations emerged and some organizations declined. The only objective of all these organization was they would help and protect the allied countries in their in their organization from any coming war situation.
- visar xhambazi (2017) “From collective defense to collective security:NATO INTERVENSION IN KOSOVO” , J political science & public affairs 5: 253, doi: 10.4172/2332-0761.1000253
- Capie, David and Evans, Paul. “Collective Defence”. The Asia-Pacific Security Lexicon, Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, 2002, pp. 48-52. https://doi.org/10.1355/9789812307071-010