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The introduction of India’s Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules in 2021 has sparked debates about their impact on freedom of speech and expression in the country’s digital media landscape. While these rules intend to counter misinformation and enhance accountability, concerns have emerged about potential infringements on free expression. This article examines the implications of the IT Rules 2021 on freedom of speech, exploring the delicate balance between regulation and fundamental rights. The rules mandate digital intermediaries to establish grievance redressal mechanisms and comply with a code of ethics to mitigate the spread of harmful content. Proponents argue that these regulations safeguard democratic discourse. However, critics fear they could enable authorities to suppress dissent and curtail political criticism. Ambiguous language in the rules could lead to over-censorship as platforms err on the side of caution. The rules affect social media platforms, streaming services, and news publishers, potentially impacting artistic creativity, journalistic integrity, and market diversity. Smaller platforms might struggle to comply due to financial constraints, which could consolidate power among larger players. The IT Rules 2021 reflect a complex effort to address digital media challenges while upholding freedom of expression. Their implementation and impact on India’s diverse digital landscape remain subjects of scrutiny.

Keywords: IT Rules 2021, Freedom of Speech, Digital Media Ethics, Intermediary Guidelines, Online Regulation


In the modern digital age, where information flows freely and conversations transcend borders, the balance between safeguarding freedom of speech and addressing the perils of unchecked online content has become a paramount concern for nations worldwide. India, a thriving democracy with a rich tradition of free expression, grapples with this intricate challenge through its recently introduced Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, commonly referred to as the IT Rules 2021.[1] These rules signify a pivotal regulatory development aimed at governing digital platforms, social media intermediaries, streaming services, and online news outlets.

While the intent behind the IT Rules 2021 is to curb the rampant spread of misinformation, hate speech, and fake news, this ambitious attempt has raised significant questions about its potential impact on the freedom of speech and expression guaranteed by India’s Constitution.[2] The balance between nurturing a space for diverse opinions and ensuring online accountability has become a delicate tightrope walk for lawmakers, tech companies, journalists, and citizens alike. As India’s digital landscape rapidly evolves, this article delves into the multifaceted implications of the IT Rules 2021 on the fundamental rights of freedom of speech and expression. Examining both the promises and pitfalls of this regulatory framework is crucial to understanding how India’s digital media ecosystem will shape up, and whether it will manage to strike the delicate equilibrium between preserving democratic discourse and curbing the excesses of the online realm.

What are the IT Rules?
  • The IT Rules derive their authority fromthe Information Technology Act, 2000,which provides legal recognition for electronic commerce.
  • Safe Harbour Provision:

The Act provides a “safe harbour” for intermediaries that observe due diligence in discharging their duties and follow guidelines prescribed by the state.

  • Intermediaries:
    • Section 79 of the Act grants immunity to intermediaries, as long as they follow due diligence and state-prescribed guidelines.
    • Intermediaries include social media platforms like WhatsApp, Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram.
  • First Originator:
    • The IT Rules impose obligations on intermediaries and require social media platforms to provide technological solutions to identify the first originator of any information on their service, under certain circumstances.
  • The IT Rules have been subject to several sets of challenges, and petitions are pending consideration in the Supreme Court of India.
Balancing Freedom of Expression and Regulation: Navigating India’s IT Rules 2021

Freedom of speech and expression[3], a cornerstone of democratic societies, has undergone a transformative shift in the digital age. The emergence of online platforms as avenues for global discourse has prompted governments around the world to grapple with the challenge of upholding this fundamental right while mitigating the harmful effects of unchecked content. In this context, India’s Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules 2021, commonly known as the IT Rules 2021, have introduced a framework that seeks to strike a balance between preserving the democratic ethos of free expression and regulating the digital space.

At its heart, the notion of freedom of expression empowers individuals to voice their opinions, share information, and engage in open dialogue without fear of censorship or retaliation. India’s Constitution enshrines this right in Article 19, recognizing its significance in fostering an informed and participatory citizenry. However, the rapid proliferation of fake news, misinformation, hate speech, and harmful content in the digital realm has underscored the need for responsible governance of online platforms. The IT Rules 2021 were introduced to address these concerns by mandating digital intermediaries—such as social media platforms, streaming services, and news publishers—to adhere to a code of ethics and establish mechanisms for addressing user grievances. The rules emphasize the importance of accountability and transparency, requiring platforms to appoint compliance officers to oversee content-related issues and facilitate timely redressed.

Supporters of these rules argue that they are a necessary response to the unchecked spread of harmful content. By holding intermediaries accountable for content shared on their platforms, the rules aim to prevent the misuse of digital spaces to incite violence, hatred, and misinformation. Furthermore, the guidelines foster a culture of self-regulation among digital platforms, promoting responsible behaviour and ensuring that users can engage in productive conversations without fear of toxicity. However, critics raise valid concerns about the potential ramifications of these rules on freedom of expression. The IT Rules 2021 grant the government the authority to demand the removal of content deemed “unlawful” or against the “sovereignty and integrity of India” within a short timeframe. Critics worry that such vague terms could enable authorities to suppress legitimate dissent, curtail political criticism, and undermine open dialogue—elements essential to a vibrant democracy. The rules could inadvertently serve as a tool to stifle voices that challenge the status quo.

Moreover, the ambiguous language used in the rules, such as “public order” and “decency,” raises the spectator of over-censorship. Fearing legal repercussions, platforms might opt to remove borderline content to err on the side of caution, leading to a chilling effect on expression. This potential chilling effect could extend not only to social media posts but also to creative content on streaming platforms and critical journalism, inhibiting the diversity of voices that contribute to India’s rich cultural and intellectual landscape.

India’s IT Rules 2021 represent an intricate attempt to balance the imperatives of free expression with the necessity of regulating digital spaces. While curbing harmful content is an admirable objective, the potential impact on legitimate discourse and creative expression cannot be ignored. The onus lies on the government, platforms, civil society, and legal experts to ensure that these rules are implemented judiciously, safeguarding democratic values while effectively addressing the challenges of the digital era. As India’s digital media landscape evolves, finding the equilibrium between freedom and regulation remains an on-going endeavour—one that will significantly shape the contours of online discourse and civic engagement in the years to come.

Freedom of Expression in the Digital Age: Navigating Rights and Responsibilities

Freedom of expression, a fundamental pillar of democratic societies, has taken on new dimensions and challenges in the digital age. Rooted in the belief that individuals have the right to voice their thoughts, opinions, and ideas without fear of censorship or retribution, this right is enshrined in the constitutions of many countries, including India. However, as the world becomes increasingly interconnected through online platforms and social media, the concept of freedom of expression has encountered complex issues that require careful consideration. At its core, freedom of expression empowers individuals to share their viewpoints, engage in open discourse, and participate in shaping public opinion. In the digital realm, this right has been magnified, allowing people to communicate with a global audience instantaneously. It has democratized information dissemination, enabling voices that were previously marginalized to find platforms for expression.[4]

Nevertheless, the digital age has also given rise to challenges that test the limits of this cherished freedom. The proliferation of fake news, hate speech, and harmful content has led to concerns about the unchecked spread of misinformation and its potential to incite violence and hatred. This has prompted governments and societies to grapple with the balance between preserving free expression and safeguarding against the negative consequences of unregulated content. The introduction of India’s Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules 2021 reflects an attempt to address these challenges while upholding the principles of free expression. These rules place certain obligations on digital intermediaries, requiring them to establish mechanisms for addressing user grievances and adhering to a code of ethics. The goal is to ensure accountability for the content shared on these platforms, preventing the misuse of digital spaces for harmful purposes.

However, the implementation of these rules also raises important questions about the potential curtailment of free expression. Critics argue that the vague terminology used in the rules, such as “public order” and “decency,” could be exploited to suppress dissenting opinions and stifle political discourse. The rules could inadvertently become tools for censorship rather than vehicles for responsible governance.

As societies navigate these complex waters, finding a balance between freedom of expression and the regulation of digital content becomes paramount. Striking this balance requires careful consideration of both rights and responsibilities. While safeguarding against the spread of harmful content is crucial, it should not come at the cost of silencing diverse voices or inhibiting legitimate public discourse. The digital age presents an opportunity to rethink and adapt existing frameworks to the evolving landscape of communication, ensuring that fundamental freedoms are preserved while addressing the challenges posed by the online realm. In this endeavour, collaboration between governments, technology platforms, civil society, and citizens is essential to chart a course that respects both the power of expression and the need for responsible engagement in the digital world.

Challenges to Freedom of Expression in the Digital Era

The digital era has brought forth a host of challenges that have redefined the landscape of freedom of expression. While this fundamental right remains a cornerstone of democratic societies, its exercise in the online realm has encountered multifaceted hurdles that demand careful consideration. One of the most pressing challenges is the rapid dissemination of misinformation and fake news. The ease of sharing information on digital platforms has led to the unchecked spread of unverified content, often blurring the lines between fact and fiction. This challenges the accuracy and credibility of information sources, ultimately eroding the foundation of informed public discourse.

Furthermore, the proliferation of hate speech and offensive content online poses a significant dilemma. While free expression encompasses diverse viewpoints, the line between legitimate critique and harmful rhetoric is often blurry. Hate speech not only threatens the well-being of individuals but also undermines the potential for healthy dialogue and mutual understanding. The rise of algorithm-driven content duration adds another layer of complexity. Personalized content feeds can inadvertently create echo chambers, reinforcing existing beliefs and limiting exposure to diverse perspectives. This challenges the democratic ideal of a well-informed citizenry that engages in open discourse. Moreover, the power and influence of social media platforms have led to concerns about undue control over public discourse. Platforms’ content moderation practices and policies have the potential to impact what voices are amplified or silenced. This concentration of power raises questions about the democratic legitimacy of private entities shaping public discourse.

The balance between freedom of expression and concerns related to privacy and security is also under scrutiny. The collection and utilization of personal data by digital platforms for targeted advertising and content recommendation raise questions about consent and autonomy, potentially leading to self-censorship. As societies grapple with these challenges, finding solutions that preserve the essence of free expression while addressing its modern complexities is imperative. It requires collaborative efforts from governments, tech companies, civil society, and users to strike a delicate equilibrium. Ensuring media literacy, promoting digital ethics, and fostering transparent content moderation practices are steps toward navigating the intricate terrain of freedom of expression in the digital age.

Impact of IT Rules 2021 on India’s Digital Media Landscape

The introduction of India’s Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules 2021 has set in motion a transformational journey for the country’s digital media landscape. These rules, while aiming to regulate online content and curb misinformation, have far-reaching implications that are reshaping the dynamics of digital media. Social media platforms, once heralded for democratizing information dissemination, are now grappling with newfound responsibilities. The rules require them to establish mechanisms for addressing user grievances and complying with a code of ethics. As a result, platforms must strike a balance between allowing diverse voices and adhering to content regulations, which may impact the nature of discourse and user engagement.[5]

Streaming services, a growing sector in India, face challenges in navigating content restrictions. While the intent is to ensure responsible content creation, there’s a possibility of inhibiting artistic creativity and expression due to stringent guidelines. The rules could potentially reshape content preferences and drive content creators to adopt a cautious approach, impacting the variety and diversity of creative outputs. News publishers are also affected by the rules’ ethical standards. While promoting journalistic integrity is crucial, the interpretation of terms like “public order” and “decency” can lead to self-censorship, hindering investigative reporting and critical journalism. This can impact the depth and authenticity of news coverage, raising concerns about the quality of information reaching the public.

Smaller digital platforms and start-ups face financial and logistical challenges in complying with the rules. The requirement to appoint compliance officers and establish grievance-redressed mechanisms can strain their resources, potentially creating an environment that favours larger, established players. This concentration of power may limit the diversity of voices and perspectives in the digital media landscape. In essence, the IT Rules 2021 are redefining the contours of India’s digital media ecosystem. While aiming to ensure accountability and responsible content dissemination, there’s a need to carefully balance these goals with the principles of freedom of expression and diversity of content. The implementation of the rules will influence how digital platforms, creators, and users navigate the evolving landscape, shaping the future of online discourse and information dissemination in India.


India’s Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules 2021 represent a pivotal moment in the evolution of the nation’s digital media landscape. As technology continues to reshape communication and interaction, striking a harmonious balance between upholding freedom of expression and regulating online content remains a challenge. The rules’ potential to combat misinformation and hate speech is commendable, yet concerns linger about unintentional censorship and stifling dissent. The path forward lies in vigilant implementation that respects democratic values while addressing contemporary challenges. India’s digital media ecosystem is at a crossroads, and its future will be shaped by the delicate interplay between responsible governance, diverse expression, and safeguarding democratic ideals in the digital age. As stakeholders navigate this complex terrain, their actions will define the trajectory of India’s vibrant digital discourse for years to come.

  1. Government of India, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology. (2021). Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021.
  2. Constitution of India, Article 19.
  3. The Wire. (2021). Why India’s New IT Rules Are a Threat to Online Speech and Privacy.
  4. Scroll. (2021). India’s New Digital Media Rules: Designed to Reduce Diversity and Pluralism.
  5. Government of India, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology. (2021)
  6. Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021.
  7. Constitution of India, Article 19- Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech etc

(1) All citizens shall have the right

(a) to freedom of speech and expression;

(b) to assemble peaceably and without arms;

(c) to form associations or unions;

(d) to move freely throughout the territory of India;

(e) to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India; and

(f) omitted

(g) to practise any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business

(2) Nothing in sub clause (a) of clause ( 1 ) shall affect the operation of any existing law, or prevent the State from making any law, in so far as such law imposes reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub clause in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence.

  1. The Wire. (2021) ‘Why India’s New IT Rules Are a Threat to Online Speech and Privacy’.
  2. (2021) ‘India’s New Digital Media Rules: Designed to Reduce Diversity and Pluralism’.

[1] Government of India, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology. (2021). Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021.

[2]Constitution of India, Article 19.

[3]The Wire. (2021). Why India’s New IT Rules Are a Threat to Online Speech and Privacy.

[4]The Wire. (2021) ‘Why India’s New IT Rules Are a Threat to Online Speech and Privacy’.

[5]Scroll. (2021) ‘India’s New Digital Media Rules: Designed to Reduce Diversity and Pluralism’.