BURDEN SHARING IN CONTEMPORARY TIMES OF REFUGEE MOVEMENTS- A SYNTHESIS OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND REFUGEE PROTECTION by - ANUSHKA GHOSH
- Can the Public Goods and Join Model Theories be used to explain the behavioral tendencies of countries in relation to their level of contribution to the cause of refugee protection and burden sharing?
- Can International Cooperation be strategically developed to promote greater equality in refugee burden sharing between developed and developing countries?
The topic of Burden Sharing and International Cooperation in the field of refugee protection and resettlement has been often discussed and studied by various scholars and academicians. However, the objective of this research paper is to delve deeper into the problem to locate the behavioral, psychological and economic reasons as to why some countries contribute more to this cause than others. Researching on the theories of Public Goods and Joint Model in this field may provide a fresh perspective and more viable method to tackle this disproportionate humanitarian issue.
There is also sufficient data and statistics to prove that the field of refugee burden sharing is largely supported and borne by the developing and smaller countries. This finding is explored and analyzed in the context of several theories and statistical observations. Further, this Research Paper goes a step ahead and tries to formulate a strategic model to ensure efficient and effective cooperate arrangements between international players that may yield a long-term and tenable solution to curtail the problem of refugee resettlement.
Research Methodology and Tools
Qualitative Research constitutes an interpretative and natural approach to the research objective.
This means that the topic of research is studied in its natural setting, where the author attempts to make sense of and further, interpret the phenomenon being studied.
In this Research Article, the author has utilized two techniques of the qualitative research methodology. These are the Open Coding technique and the Content Analysis technique. The Open Coding technique relates to the analysis and interpretation of textual data by way of locating and identifying hidden ideas and observations that are present in them.2 Through this technique, the author will endeavor to study raw textual data and theories in order to identify concepts that are politically and economically significant. Once the essential and significant topics and patterns are identified, matching theories will be linked, classified and grouped to form an opinion and facilitate an analytical discussion. These groups of categories will allow the author to draw a ‘bigger picture’ of the social situation and explain the impugned questions and phenomena. The findings from these classifications will further be explained in the analytical section of the paper. The technique of Content Analysis will be used to assess the many reports, articles, reviews, statistical data etc. that has been produced on the said topic. The author will analyses and study these materials in a systematic, objective, transparent and neutral manner to yield observations and produce analytical findings on the research topic.
Though countless literary accounts that deal with the plight of the refugee crises have been previously published over the years, the problem of safely securing the lives of these refugees remains an unaccomplished challenge. This problem largely lies with the behavioral and psychological response meted out against the responsibility of housing an unprecedented inflow of unknown refugees into new demographic and political borders. Through this research article, the concept of burden sharing in the refugee regime has first been studied through case studies of India and the European Union. The author has then endeavored to break down the different theories like the Public Goods and Joint Model Theories that offer a factorial reason as to why some countries are more accepting of refugees than others. Further, through a study of the statistical data published by the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (further referred to as the ‘UNHCR’) in this context, the author has drawn numerical graphs to diagrammatically explain the disproportionate sharing between developed and developing countries. The article will also secondarily deal with the elements of international cooperation
by attempting to devise a viable and strategic arrangement required to fulfil the criteria of refugee protection.
Key Words:Refugee, Public Goods Theory, Joint Model Theory, 1951 Convention on Refugees, UNHCR, International Cooperation.
“Refugees are fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters and children, with the same ambitions and hopes as us— except that their lives are bound to a global refugee crisis at an unprecedented scale due to a twist of fate.”
The concept of Burden Sharing was initially formulated to attend to the growing need to share responsibility of lending humanitarian aid to refugee seekers globally. This was a concept much needed in times of mass influx of populations. The idea behind this principle, as elaborated by the 1951 Convention of Refugees by the United Nations was to balance the unduly placed burden of housing such displaced refugees by different countries, thus mandating the need for mutual international cooperation in order to divide and allocate this imperative responsibility. This has led to the formulation of two types of action in this context. The first is in terms of monetary or financial assistance to asylum countries that are relatively less developed. This would greatly aid with the proper care and assistance of these refugees in asylum countries.
The other type of action involves ‘physical’ aid and assistance in relation to burden-sharing. This includes resettlement or housing protection options for displaced persons.
Responsibility of burden sharing countries in the refugee regime
As will be discussed in this paper, there have been historical evidences and patterns to establish the fact that some countries contribute more greatly to provide refuge to displaced persons than others even though all the signatories of the 1951 Geneva Convention on Refugees provide for the same legal obligations for all in this regard. The 1951 Convention on Refugees along with the 1967 Protocol constitute the base of the legal system governing refugee rights and laws.3 Two crucial principals obligated on signatory states are enlisted under this. The first is letting a displaced person who has fled their country of origin in search of safety a chance to apply for asylum so as to obtain the status of a refugee and benefit from the rights and protections granted
thereunder. The second comprises of the obligation of states to adhere to the principal of ‘non- refoulment’. This means, that states must take measures and steps to ensure the prevention of returning these refugees back to territories or borders where their freedom or life is endangered while providing them protection.
Concept and Burden Sharing in India
Overview of Refugee Protection and Commitment to Refugee Burden Sharing borne by India over the years
In the present context of Refugee Protection and Burden-Sharing, it is largely informative as well as insightful to start with studying the history and pattern of burden-sharing in the context of refugee protection as has taken place in India. In over seven decades since it became an independent country, India has witnessed and actively participated in welcoming large waves of refugees fleeing persecution in countries of the vicinity. These waves are broadly divided into four eras-
- Refugee Resettlement during Partition- This crisis saw its birth with the dawn of the Partition of the country in 1947, just after it gained independence. Even though the nationality of those who were compelled to move across the newly demarcated borders was not taken away from them; they had to live like
- Refugee Resettlement in India from Tibet- India witnessed its next major refugee influx more than a decade later when more than 100,000 Tibetans along with the Dalai Lama came to seek refuge and political asylum in India. India granted protection to the Tibetans on humanitarian
- Bangladeshi Refugee Crisis- The next wave of refugee resettlement and burden sharing borne by India happened not much later, in 1971 during the independence war of Millions of refugees sought protection and resettlement in India as they were fleeing the threat of persecution and conflict from the war in their home country.
- The Rohingya Refugee Crisis- Arguably one of the most widespread and impactful refugee intakes for India was during the Rohingya Refugee Crisis which still finds its traces in contemporary
Apart from these major refugee inflows, India has also taken responsibility of Sri Lankan Tamils, Afghani Refugees, and more recently, communities of the Hajong and Chakma over time.4
In conclusion, India’s rich history in the context of Humanitarian Refugee Protection has undoubtedly received waves of refugees from many of its neighbouring countries. India has by and large succeeded in adhering to its obligation of burden-sharing of refugees by following the principle of non-refoulment and protecting these housed refugees within its borders. For a country already housing a population as large and having resources as limited as India, this achievement is definitely not of a small magnitude. It is greatly commended and acts as a potentially ideal example in the fields of International Humanitarian Aid, International Cooperation and Refugee Protection.
Burden Sharing in the European Union Burden Sharing within the EU
The first branch of discussions revolved around the type of burden-sharing that was traced initially in 1994 when Germany initiated the idea of the physical distribution of refugee seekers within the various EU states. First came a discussion on possible forms of burden-sharing of refugees or asylum seekers among European Union (EU) states. This distribution was to be based on several different factors such as size of the state, its population and its economic status through its GDP. Though this ideal was rejected, a diluted version of the same idea was consequently featured in the EU legislation. This elucidated on the ideal of sharing refugee seekers between states on a balanced basis and providing humanitarian aid and protection in a shared spirit of solidarity.
These discussions paved the path for the formulation and initiation of several other similar mechanisms in order to bring about a concrete and balanced distribution of refugee seekers among states. Many of these mechanisms have also been adopted since.5 An example of this is the Kosovo Evacuation Programme which in the year 2000, endeavoured to facilitate physical
burden sharing of Kosovar refugees staying in Macedonia- the former Yugoslavia republic among the different European states.6
Several scholars as well as academicians have attempted to study the different aspects and theories surrounding the topic of the refugee crises and resettlement issues globally.
- Peter Gatrell, in his paper, ‘The Question of Refugees:Past and ’ (2017) elucidates on the constituent factors of a ‘refugee’. He further highlights the ignorance of the media towards certain refugee dimensions and their consequent misinterpreted presentation as those who are nothing but a liability to the receiving country. This article further mentions the history of this refugee crisis by citing case studies dating back to the first World War. It also mentions the global response meted out by several international organizations and institutions to this crisis over the years including the UNHRC, the UNHCR etc.7
- Caryl, ‘Visualization of the Weakest Links’, (2016)endeavors to establish the way in which low to middle income and developing countries bear most of the responsibility to house and resettle refugees in current times. These include the countries of Turkey, Ethiopia, Jordan and The author goes on to talk about how their geographical locations exempt richer countries like the United States, Japan and Canada from participating in refugee resettlement issues. He also goes on to promote a holistic approach to globally tackle the ongoing refugee crisis.8
- Helen Clark, ‘Displaced People Assistance Development’, (2016) deals with the statistical data on the refugee crisis to draw theories and observations. This article also analyses the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations and studies the incompetency of the response meted out by the international community in this regard. The author promotes the need for change in the economic and political field to tackle the refugee crisis.9
Slaughter, ‘New Refugee Homelands’, (2015)takes an interesting take on the growing refugee
crisis globally. It analyses the situation in the context of burden sharing and resettlement and proposes that countries can mobilize resources in order to build separate cities and facilities to accommodate refugees. It cites the example of an Egyptian billionaire, Naguib Sawaris who bought two Greek islands in order to settle and house thousands of refugees.10
- Nirij Deva, ‘Economic Development Aid’, (2017) addresses the shortcomings of the refugee crisis response in the international sphere. It suggests and elucidates on an effective financial model in order to eliminate the crisis that combines charitable, public and private contributions to achieve the 11
Observation and Findings
Is a State’s proportion of burden sharing influenced by the nature of refugee protection? A psychological analysis behind disproportionate burden-sharing in light of the Public Goods and Joint Model Theories.
A very interesting and important question that may be raised in this context is whether a State’s proportion of burden-sharing is influenced by the nature of refugee protection. This perspective, to understand the behavioral patterns and collective actions alliance of the burden-sharing principle in the refugee protection regime can be studied through the Public Goods Theory. This theory was originally developed by Zeckhauser and Olson and consequently taken up by Sandier and endeavored to analyses whether the nature of the regime of refugee protection contributed to the behavioral responses and motivations of states in committing to the cause of refugee resettlement.12 In this context, the key is to establish the actual nature of refugee protection and whether it comes under the ambit of a ‘public good’. This derivation would further facilitate the understanding of whether the issue of ‘free riding’ as an accompanying effect of it being a public good may lead to suboptimal results in this situation or whether the contributions meted out by states is actually to their own private benefits with regard to the nature of the good. This is further analyzed through the Joint Product Model which promotes the determination of state contributions and yields the result that refugee protection is more often than not disproportionately borne by developing countries in relation to the proportion of contribution meted out by developed countries.
Studying Different Theories
An intricate study into the theory of public goods and its related theories reveal the nature of its relation to the policy of burden-sharing in the context of refugee protection. For this, we may begin with the theory propagated by Oslo that begins with the definition of a public good. This theory states that a public good is meant to entail that good, the benefit of which cannot be denied to any country. Moreover, a consumption or usage of this good will not lead to a consequent deprivation in the availability of its consumption to others. In this context, even the policy of burden-sharing of refugees falls under the ambit of a public good. This can be explained by the additional security that emerges as a result of refugee protection. This not only benefits countries that contribute to the protection and settlement of refugees, but also surrounding countries at no additional marginal cost. This further provides benefits specific to countries like the enhancement of their status or the opportunity to achieve their ideological goals. Thus, in the context of the Public Goods Theory, burden sharing in the context of refugee protection is also a public good.
Further, this theory postulates that every country can make a choice on its level of contribution to the production of this public good in proportion to the budget constraints that binds it. It may also choose, in this context, to make no contribution. In these cases, they can fulfil their requirements of public goods by utilizing the contributions so put in by other countries. This further leads to the deduction that countries having a higher income inherently contribute a larger amount and bear a greater responsibility specially in relation to the ‘free-riding’ smaller states, in the context of burden-sharing of refugees, which in fact, is also a public good. In Oslo’s theory, this is what is termed as the ‘exploitation of the big by the small.’13 This free- riding opportunity by the smaller states consequently leads to a sub-optimal output for these public collective goods.14
The ‘Joint Product Model’ in this field postulates that a country’s level of contribution to a public good, in this case, it being refugee protection, is directly proportionate to the benefits arising from it. These benefits could either be based on the country’s commitment to the idea of solidarity with vulnerable sections of people or the additional security that accrues out of
refugee protection that acts as an added advantage to the country.15
Though empirical evidence yields the observation of the exploitation theory in the field of international peace keeping, the opposite is postulated in the field of refugee protection and burden sharing. In these cases, more often than not, it is the smaller countries and developing countries that are being exploited by the developed, larger countries. These figures will be elucidated on by studying the statistical findings and numerical readings by the United Nations High Commission on Refugees (“UNHCR”) in the following section.
A graphical representation of the numerical statistics clearly yields the observation that the number of displaced persons and refugee seekers has increased greatly over the years. The reason and factors underlying this rise in numbers will be dealt with in greater detail in the following sections. 2019 has thus seen a massive surge in the number of refugees. The second figure however denotes that though there is a clear spike in the number of global refugees, the burden to house these refugees is still largely borne by developing countries, led by Turkey (3,6 million refugees), with the least developing countries housing a greater proportion than developed countries. (27%) Indeed, developing countries today host 85 percent of the world’s refugees, and the very poorest countries provide asylum to one-third of the global total.
Critical Analysis and Discussions
Based on the aforementioned statistics, it has become abundantly clear that a model based on international cooperation needs to be formulated to tackle this issue. Through this section, the author has attempted to analyses and discuss the repercussions of these statistics through the status of international cooperation in the contemporary crisis of refugee resettlement.
Refugee Protection and International Cooperation- The Way Forward
The international system of refugee protection is largely focused and directed towards the cooperation between international players. This element and component of international refugee protection enlightens the fact that such humanitarian challengers are in fact, transnational in nature and thus, cannot be resolved or borne by one single country in isolation.
The concept of international cooperation is well established in the Charter of the UN and in international law.17 In the context of the present paper, this concept largely entails a structure to ensure cooperation between international players and states as well as a set of policies and instruments to bring about the balanced sharing of responsibility and burden in the context of refugee protection for instance, diplomatic negotiations, financial assistance, socio-religious elements etc.18
Analyzing the application of Burden Sharing during contemporary crises
A study of the statistics on the status of refugee resettlement and burden-sharing yields the observation that this decade (2010-2019) has seen an unprecedented, almost magnanimous rise in the number of displaced persons, of which much of the burden is borne by smaller states, as is hypothesized by the joint product model.
It is imperative to study the contemporary status of refugee crises that the world is under today. This helps in establishing a pattern in the wave of refugee crises over the years and whether the legislations and actions taken by the international community have lessened or aggravated this humanitarian issue. Depending on this pattern, the extent or gravity of the crises can truly be understood and thereafter, worked upon.
Analysis in the Current Conditions of Covid-19
The pandemic that has taken over the entire world is a clear manifestation of how unprecedented events that engulf the world can seriously impact situations of forced displacement. The novel virus that saw its birth towards the end of 2019, has had and is currently having an immense impact at the sociological as well as economic front internationally and is subsequently greatly affecting refugee systems. For instance, the rise of the pandemic globally has seen a surge in stringent border policies of countries around the world. Different countries are strengthening the fluidity of their borders thus imposing an even tougher restriction on the allowance of displaced refugees into their countries.19 As a consequence of this, the uncertainty revolving around the displacement movement globally has seen a steep rise.
In this context, whatever the future holds, the importance of extending pathways for these
displaced refugees must be established and they must be given greater and more effective opportunities to rebuild their lives- whether in their new host countries, other third countries or in their own home countries.
So far it has been well-established that we are inevitably and undeniably facing a global humanitarian crisis at large. In these situations, it is a system of international burden-sharing that is both equitable and just that can contribute to diluting the gravity of the issue at hand.
Devising a breakdown of the International Cooperation Arrangements and its elements- Questions to be raised
After establishing the vitality of international cooperative systems and arrangements and studying the current global trends and conditions of refugee crises worldwide, it is important to formulate an approximate vision of what this should entail and how the process of refugee resettlement must be dealt with.
The author has attempted to tackle this issue by devising some imperative questions that need to be asked and considered while formulating an effective crisis resolution model.
A. Structure and Objective of Cooperative Arrangements relating to Refugee Resettlement Challenges to primarily address issues focused on-
- Lack of Capacity in host countries- Resource and Fund scarcity or limitations in host
- Mass population explosion in host countries- Leading to problems with
- Lack of balanced contribution by international players- Uneven and disproportionate burden borne by different
- Proportion of responsibility borne by each state- Inequitable responsibility taken up by
B. Classifying different ‘phases’ of refugee resettlement where intervention through cooperative arrangements is needed-
- Prevention- Involving financial assistance, material resource contributions and diplomatic international negotiations to curb warfare and persecution at its
- Initial and Emergent response to displacement- Involving registration, status grant, profiling, providing refugee protection, promoting self-reliance, offering temporary protection and emergency evacuation to third
- Consequent Action- Long-term/ durable solutions for refugees, alternatives to resettlement and migration, follow-up support
B. Identifying the involved Stakeholders
- Origin Countries- Political and Socio-Economic conditions of origin countries determine need for
- Countries neighboring borders of Origin County- Can act as destination or transit countries in situations of refugee displacement.
- International Institutions like the United Nations High Commission on Refugees- Providing expertise and
- Civil societies and non-state international actors like NGOs- Mobilizing resources- Monetary and Physical
- Refugees, Asylum-seekers and such persons in need of resettlement who face displacement due to
Devising a broad structure to encompass the requirements and elements of international cooperative arrangement structures thus becomes an important factor in the international burden-sharing regime for refugees in order to improve and alleviate the prevailing conditions and response to several refugee situations in contemporary times.
Challenging the concept of ‘Burden’ in ‘Burden Sharing’
As the continuing efforts to bring the refugee resettlement issue to an end persist, the widening void that is created to overcome this crisis keeps deepening. This void keeps reminding us of the lack of efficiency that is being meted out to this humanitarian crisis worldwide.
On a general basis, refugees are more often than not associated with the looming burden of welcoming insecurity, falling economy and crimes into a country’s borders. International diplomatic negotiations around their protection and resettlement have been ineffective in bringing about peaceful arrangements.
In the 21st century, while the world has made immense advancements in infrastructure development, technological advancements and economic success, it is but alarming to revaluate
the status achieved by the humanitarian refugee crises in this context. The displacement of refugees is still subject to a large rise in numbers to such an extent that the UNH has termed this period as one of the highest levels of global refugee displacement in history!20
As has been addressed in this article, the developing countries are bearing the larger responsibility of this crisis. This further becomes the source of yet another problem- obstructed access to indispensable resources like food, water, health and shelter, in addition to the growing problem of national security to both the refugees, as well as the citizens of the host countries.
It is imperative that the world comes together in unity to take collective action and responsibility to minimise the tragic consequences that may arise out of the potential humanitarian violations that still compel people to escape the dangers of their own homelands. This problem is further accentuated by the fact that two-thirds of the refugees’ resettlement issue, as mandated under the UNHCR originate from merely five countries- Afghanistan, Myanmar, South Sudan, Somalia and Syria.21
Unfortunately, even though a large part of the refugee crisis emanates from a relatively focused area of the globe, humanitarian aid directed toward this cause remains largely underfunded. Developing countries struggling to house these resettled refugees deserve greater support and management aids.
With a heightened sense of consciousness, responsibility and a will to come together in mutual global cooperation, there is no doubt that the world is fully capable of taking better care of humanity’s most vulnerable segment of society.
Thus far, we have intricately analyzed the concept of burden-sharing in the context of refugee resettlement. In such unprecedented times, it is vital for us to establish the importance of collective action and cooperative arrangements. We have analyzed the standing of burden- sharing in different contexts like India and the EU. Further, we have studied its origin, objective and current status. The main objective of this article however, was to study the different theories surrounding this concept and understand the psychological as well as behavioral reasons as to why some countries may disproportionately contribute to this cause. These theories also help in establishing whether the bigger countries contribute lesser than smaller countries or vice versa. After studying the theories of Public Goods and Joint Model, we have
inferred that the latter is historically as well as statistically true. This finding has also been backed by numerical statistics of refugee displacement and country contribution as has been recorded by the UNHRC. After researching on these theories and statistics, it becomes clear that the only way we can see a potential end to this global humanitarian crisis is by formulating effective cooperative arrangements which amalgamate refugee protection provisions with international cooperation between different countries.
In conclusion, we must understand that these crises are not mere theories. Every study in statistics has a face behind the number. These are situations and problems that affect actual human lives. Behind every unsuccessful attempt at providing security and safety to refugees is a human life that is harmed. We, as an international community must understand that providing protection, security and shelter to displaced persons is not so much a ‘burden’ as named by the concept, as a ‘privilege’. It allows us to direct our efforts and resources to change and better several lives.
Global cooperation and shared responsibility in this context are the most concrete steps that can be taken in order to prove that the saying ‘all human beings are born equal’ is more a reality than a distortion. After all, at the end of the day, refugees are humans too.
- Articles 1, 13, 55 and 56, The Charter of the United Nations, (24 October 1945), http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/index.shtml 11
- The Refugee Convention, 1951, https://www.org/4ca34be29.pdf.. 2
- UNHCR, Global Refugee Trends, https://www.org/globaltrends2019/, (Last Viewed On- September 28,2020)…………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
- UNHCR, International cooperation, burden sharing and comprehensive regional approaches, (8 December 2015), http://www.unhcr.org/4d09e4e09.html…………………………………………. 11
- UNHCR, Refugee Statistics, (December 2019), https://www.org/refugee- statistics/download/?url=ow0C………. 14
- Deepak M. Singh, Statelessness in South Asia, https://epdf.pub/stateless-in-south-asia- the-chakmas-between-bangladesh-and-india-sage-studies-on.html, (Last Viewed On- August 22, 2020)………………………… 5
- European Commission, Migration and Home Affairs,https://ec.europa.eu/home- affairs/what-we- do/policies/asylum/examination-of-applicants_en, (Last Viewed On- August 22, 2020) 6
- Sage Encyclopaedia of Qualitative Research Methods, Lisa Given, Open Coding, , https://methods.sagepub.com/reference/sage-encyc-qualitative-research- methods/n299.xml, (Last Viewed On- August 22, 2020) 2
- Siddharth Chatterjee, Sharing the Burden of Refugees, https://www.org/news/2019/06/20/25387, (Last Viewed On- August 29, 2020) 14
- United Nations Human Rights Commission on Refugees, Refugee and Women, https://www.org/en-us/women.html, (Last Viewed On- September 12, 2020) 3
- Eiko Thielemann and Torun Dewan, Why States Don’t Defect: Refugee Protection and Burden Sharing, (2016),https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/22872877.pdf 9
- Journal of Immigration Asylum andNationalityLaw, Madeline Garlick, ‘Protecting Rights and Courting Controversy: Leading Jurisprudence of the European Courts’, (24 June, 2015), 29,no.2(2015):192,210. 6
- Olson and Zeckhauser, “An economic theory of alliances.” Review of Economics and Statistics 48: 266-79, (1966) 9
- Susan Kneebone, The International Journal of Human Rights, Comparative regional protection frameworks for refugees: norms and norm entrepreneurs, (June 9,2017), Vol. 20:2, 153-172, DOI: 1080/13642987.2016.1141499. 7
- Europa News, COVID-19 Asylum Applications, (April,2020), https://easo.europa.eu/news-events/covid-19-asylum-applications-down-march 12
- Caryl, , Visualization of the Weakest Links, (February 2,2016),http://foreignpolicy.com/2016/02/02/the-weakest-links-syria-refugees-migrants- crisis-datavisualization/. 6
- Gatrell, P, The Question of Refugees: Past and Present, (2017) 6
- Helen Clark, G, Project Syndicate Commentary, Displaced People Assistance Development, (January 11,2016),https://www.project- syndicate.org/commentary/development-assistance-displacedpeople-by-helen-clark-and- filippo-grandi-2016 -assistance-displaced-people-by 7
- Nirij Deva, Economic Development Aid , (June 8,2017), https://www.rorg/commentary/private-sector-economic-development- aidby-nirj-deva-2017. 7
- Slaughter, -M., Project Syndicate Commentary, New Refugee Homelands, (November 27,2015), https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/new-refugee- homelandspermanent-settlements-by-anne-marie- slaughter-2015 7
- Mancur Olson, Harvard University Press , The Logic of Collective Action 319 (1971).
1SYMBIOSIS LAW SCHOOL PUNE, B.A LL. B (HONS.) IV YEAR,
2 Sage Encyclopaedia of Qualitative Research Methods, Lisa Given, Open Coding, (2015), https://methods.sagepub.com/reference/sage-encyc-qualitative-research-methods/n299.xml.
3 United Nations Human Rights Commission on Refugees,Refugee and Women, (August 2015), https://www.unhcr.org/en-us/women.html.
4 Deepak M. Singh, Statelessness in South Asia, (April 2016), https://epdf.pub/stateless-in-south-asia-the-chakmas- between-bangladesh-and-india-sage-studies-on.html.
5European Commission,Migration and Home Affairs, (September 2016),https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/what- we-do/policies/asylum/examination-of-applicants_en.
6 Journal of Immigration Asylum andNationalityLaw,Madeline Garlick,‘Protecting Rights and Courting Controversy: Leading Jurisprudence of the European Courts’,(24 June, 2015),Vol.29,no.2(2015):192,210.
7 Gatrell, P,The Question of Refugees: Past and Present, (2017).
8 Caryl, C., Visualization of the Weakest Links, (February 2,2016), http://foreignpolicy.com/2016/02/02/the- weakest-links-syria-refugees-migrants-crisis-datavisualization/.
9 HelenClark, F.G, Project Syndicate Commentary, Displaced People Assistance Development, (January 11,2016),https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/development-assistance-displacedpeople-by-helen- clark-and- filippo-grandi-2016 -assistance-displaced-people-by.
10 Slaughter, A.-M., Project Syndicate Commentary, New Refugee Homelands, (November 27,2015), https://www.researchread.org/commentary/new-refugee-homelandspermanent-settlements-by-anne-marie- slaughter-2015.
11NirijDeva, Economic Development Aid, (June 8,2017), https://www.refugeehandbook.org/commentary/private- sector-economic-development-aidby-nirj-deva-2017.
12 Susan Kneebone, The International Journal of Human Rights, Comparative regional protection frameworks for refugees: norms and norm entrepreneurs, (June 9,2017),Vol. 20:2, 153-172, DOI: 10.1080/13642987.2016.1141499.
13 Mancur Olson, Harvard University Press, The Logic of Collective Action 319 (1971).
14 Eiko Thielemann and Torun Dewan, Why States Don’t Defect: Refugee Protection and Burden Sharing, (2016),https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/22872877.pdf.
15Olson and Zeckhauser, “An economic theory of alliances.” Review of Economics and Statistics 48: 266-79, (1966).
16 UNHCR, Global Refugee Trends, (November 2019),https://www.unhcr.org/globaltrends2019/.
17 Articles 1, 13, 55 and 56, The Charter of the United Nations, (24 October 1945), http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/index.shtml.
18 UNHCR, International cooperation, burden sharing and comprehensive regional approaches, (8 December 2015),
19Europa News, COVID-19 Asylum Applications, (April,2020), https://easo.europa.eu/news-events/covid-19- asylum-applications-down-march.
20UNHCR, Refugee Statistics, (December 2019), https://www.unhcr.org/refugee-statistics/download/?url=ow0C. 21 Siddharth Chatterjee, Sharing the Burden of Refugees, (June 20,2019), https://www.globalissues.org/news/2019/06/20/25387.