In recent years, green hydrogen has become a desirable alternative to fossil fuels due to its potential to reduce carbon emissions in the energy industry. India, like many other nations, is attempting to fulfill its energy requirements while minimizing its carbon impact by embracing the ability of green hydrogen. The ambitious Indian Green Hydrogen Mission promotes green hydrogen generation and consumption. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) is leading the endeavor as part of the government’s clean energy transition. Every year, India produces about 100 million tons of hydrogen. The majority of it is produced using coal and steam methane reforming i.e. the blue and grey hydrogen. Both are extremely clean and sustainable ways, despite the fact that they both take a lot of energy to produce.
Hydrogen and electricity produced using renewable technology will surely function as clean, limitless energy sources in the quickly approaching twenty-first century. The need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has become more pressing in the current situation, leading many nations to take action to decarbonize their economy. Hydrogen utilisation would increase energy security and significantly cut air pollution that can help India to tackle its Greenhouse gas emissions problem. India’s energy demand is anticipated to increase more quickly than that of any other nation. As a result, now is the time to focus on creative and efficient solutions to the growing demand.
The Green Hydrogen Mission in India represents a significant step towards achieving a clean energy future for the country. By promoting the production and use of green hydrogen, India can reduce its carbon footprint, enhance energy security, and create new opportunities for economic growth and development. This article examines the Green Hydrogen and how the Green Hydrogen is better than all of its alternative, then we will understand Hydrogen Economy, Climate Change, and the Potential of Hydrogen in India, steps taken by Indian Government in this area, challenges India is going to face and finally will study what can be the prosperous path for India and where the Indian policymakers should be vigilant.
KEYWORDS: Hydrogen, Steam Methane Reforming, Sustainable Development, Renewable Energy, Climate Change.
During the course of the past several years, there has been an increase in understanding on a worldwide scale regarding the necessity of collective action to prevent the detrimental effects of global warming. For this majority of wealthy nations, including India, have aimed to net zero carbon emission objectives in order to overcome this issue. India, which is the third highest CO2 emitter in the world, has also taken a number of initiatives to minimise its carbon footprint and is working towards reaching net zero emissions by the year 2070. Because of this, the government is making the adoption of green hydrogen a priority, particularly in order to decarbonize certain industries such as ammonia production, refineries, iron and steel production, methanol production, and heavy-duty transportation.
India is currently one of the world’s top nations in the fight against climate change is adopting Green Hydrogen which is anticipated to be the movement’s driving force. The National Hydrogen Mission was unveiled by Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi as part of Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav at India’s 74th Independence Day celebrations in August 2021. This was the nation’s first significant step towards the adoption of green hydrogen. He outlined a 25-year plan for the country’s hydrogen growth and declared his desire to turn India into a major hub for producing and exporting of green hydrogen. So, firstly it is important to understand what is Green Hydrogen so as to get our base clear about why it is in such limelight and why the Indian government is so bullish about this National Green Hydrogen Mission.
What is Green Hydrogen?
So, Hydrogen is the element that comes first on the periodic table. It is also the element that is the least dense and the one that may be found in the greatest abundance in nature. Hydrogen is a kind of energy that, similar to electricity, needs to be manufactured from another substance in order to be used. Producing hydrogen, which may then be extracted and utilised as a fuel or source of energy, can be accomplished through the use of water, biomass, or fossil fuels. There are various sources through which Hydrogen can be produced and mainly we can classify these in 4 types i.e. Blue Hydrogen, Grey Hydrogen, Turquoise Hydrogen and obviously Green Hydrogen. The Blue Hydrogen is made through the process called Steam Methane Reforming where 95% of this carbon is captured, stored and reused the source used here is Methane. Whereas if you see the grey Hydrogen is made through similar process and source just the difference is that here there is no carbon element involved in the whole process. The Turquoise Hydrogen is made through a different process which is called Pyrolysis methane pyrolysis which is also having futuristic optimism if the research and development on it is done more deeply. Finally, coming to Green Hydrogen which is produced using renewable energy and the process to produce this hydrogen is through Electrolysis. Electrolysis, that uses an electrical current to separate hydrogen and oxygen in water, is one technique for making hydrogen. Since there are no carbon emissions during the whole production process of green hydrogen, which is one of the cleanest fuels currently on the market, the electricity generated for this method must come from renewable sources (solar, wind, hydro, etc.). So, the question may arise that if electrolysis was there since decades then why are we talking about green hydrogen now and not 15 years back so, the reason is simple but complex if you look at the shocking figures which shows that although electrolysis was available but the cost of producing renewable energy was very high back then but from past 10 years if you see there has been huge changes the cost of solar has decreased 89% and it is expected to drop further seeing the research and development in this field and with more technological advancements we would see in future that the cost of renewable energy to be much cheaper than ever before.
The annual demand for hydrogen is now at 70 million metric tonnes, with 76% of that need being satisfied by natural gas, 23% by coal, and the remaining 4% being met by water electrolysis. The production of hydrogen through electrolysis will be increased while the output of hydrogen through the other two methods will be decreased. It is possible to achieve price parity between green hydrogen and hydrogen produced from natural gas as early as the year 2030, if not before. According to the most recent Global Hydrogen Review 2021 which was published by the International Energy Agency, the dream of a future economy that is powered by green hydrogen, which is hydrogen that is produced by electrolyzing water using renewable electricity, faces several challenges. This is the case despite the announcement that tens of billions of dollars in subsidies will be made available to stimulate supply. According to the findings of the research presented in the study, “the cost of generating hydrogen from renewable power remains more than options involving fossil fuels” in many regions of the world. This would lead one to assume that blue hydrogen alternatives, which include hydrogen produced from coal or methane and paired with CO2 storage, should take the lead in the hydrogen economy at least in the short- to medium-term. But, in order for such a strategy to work, it is necessary to have a large supply of natural gas and coal that is available at reasonable prices, in addition to having enough geological formations that are suitable for the cost-effective and long-term storage of carbon dioxide. It’s possible that places like North America, the Middle East, Russia, and Australia have an abundance of these resources, but that’s not the case in a lot of other places across the world. It is commonly believed that green hydrogen is more expensive than blue hydrogen; however, the actual cost can vary depending on a number of different circumstances. The latter option is India’s best hope for a wealthy and environmentally friendly energy future.
This paper tries to understand the Green Hydrogen as a source of energy and why the government is giving it priority over the other renewable sources of energy. The paper will then look onto the initiatives taken by the government to boost production of green hydrogen in our country i.e. the National Green Hydrogen Mission. Also we will examine the future outlook for the green hydrogen in India with pros and cons of it. As we see many questions will be raised like Is Green Hydrogen the best source of renewable energy? Does the future of India in regards with Green Hydrogen looks prosperous? What can be disadvantages of using Green Hydrogen as a renewable source of energy? All these question will also be addressed in this paper. On the whole this paper will try to tell you bits and pieces about the green hydrogen so that we understand its importance for our India’s future.
This paper will intently follow past examinations. Authentic sites have been used as data while citing those as well in APA format. The examination is conveyed by utilizing this methodology by considering and dissecting the current information regarding the matter. Existing information is assembled from global association reports and deciphered to do a legitimate evaluation that will help in a more profound study of the current scenario.
Firstly, before understanding why Green Hydrogen is so important for India we need to examine the issues which are revolving and needed to be addressed by our policymakers. The First main issue here is that India is extremely dependent on the middle east for oil which makes us extremely vulnerable to oil shocks in case of any global tensions just like recently we have seen sharp rise in the prices of Oil due to the production cut by the OPEC + nations during the Covid-19 Pandemic which resulted in huge losses. Secondly, if you see the majorly all the countries in the world have now started realizing that climate change is for real so India and 193 other nation have signed the Paris Agreement wherein India is aiming to cut-down 50% of greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. Lastly, in India we have 3 of the most important industries i.e. Transportation, steel and chemical which are running not at a very profitable condition due to the existing source of renewable energy which are used. So, India needs to address all these issues and challenges so as to achieve all its targets and at the end become not the net producer but also the exporter of green hydrogen.
- Why Hydrogen is so Important?
Now, due to its zero-pollution, hydrogen-powered cars are encouraged. The transportation sector must move to clean hydrogen, not only increase hydrogen fuel market share. Hydrogen production from fossil fuels hinders emission reduction despite its clean burning. India must electrify its transportation industry and use renewable energy to decarbonize. According to NITI Aayog, India can decrease 3.6 gigatons of CO2 emissions by 2050 by adopting green hydrogen. Public policy think-tank NITI Aayog serves the national government. Ernst & Young India-SED fund estimates that 115 gigawatts of renewable power and 50 billion liters of demineralized water will be needed to produce 5 million tons of green hydrogen by 2030. International professional services network EY. Green hydrogen will be cost-competitive in India in the future due to renewable energy generation’s cheap cost. Domestic energy sources will reduce oil and gas imports.
- Is Hydrogen better than its Competitor?
If we see Hydrogen is better than Lithium Ion Batteries as well specially in case of Heavy duty transportation as the amount of space taken by Hydrogen is way lesser than what Lithium Ion batteries takes i.e. around 4 times lesser as these batteries are so heavy. Even the charging time taken by a Hydrogen Vehicle is way lesser than what Lithium Ion Batteries takes.
Even if we talk about the steel industry Green Hydrogen is better than any of it competitor; if we look this is one of the sectors where India which is second largest producer for steel needs to be extremely concerned about as it is one of the most polluting sector and steel industry contributes around 12-13 of India’s total carbon emissions whereas it contributes around 8% of the whole world’s carbon emission. So, India needs to be very vigilant as we can see there are issues like the ‘Carbon Border Tax’ as well in front of India which can cause us loss of Billions of Dollars in trade. Now coming back to how Green Hydrogen is better the simple answer would be that the steel industries uses Grey Hydrogen as its releasing agents it is expected if we do not swift to green hydrogen the carbon emissions will rise to a huge level in coming future. So, in short India needs to swift from Blue and Grey Hydrogen to Green Hydrogen which is expected to happen with more innovation and technology for Green
Hydrogen Better than its Alternative- One of the articles that investigates the practicability of hydrogen petrol (H2) as a fuel for application in the transportation industry on a worldwide scale. As compared to electric vehicles powered by batteries and vehicles powered by internal combustion engines, H2 vehicles have benefits in both the technological and economic spheres. One question that has been asked in the context of the global economy is, “Will hydrogen be the sustainable fuel for transportation in India?” which has been properly examined in this paper.
III. Green Hydrogen can be boon for India’s Future
India has an annual production of 100 million tons of hydrogen. The majority of it is produced by the reformation of coal and steam-driven methane. Both demand a significant amount of energy, yet they are environmentally friendly and sustainable. In the 21st century, hydrogen and electricity generated from renewable sources will serve as clean, not in a depletable form of transportable energy. Since the need to cut emissions of greenhouse gases has become more pressing, a growing number of nations have begun the process of decarbonizing their economy. This was made abundantly clear in a study titled “A Review on Green Hydrogen: Future of Green Hydrogen in India,” which focuses specifically on Green Hydrogen and its Potential in India and how green hydrogen can tackle India’s climate change problem. It also provides a crystal clear explanation of how this was accomplished. According to the findings of another research that conducts an analysis in a method that is analogous to the one described above, the rate of industrialization and population growth in India would result in a greater need for energy in the areas of industry, transportation, power, and cooling. As a result of the reduction objectives for greenhouse gas emissions, the usage of fossil fuels will become less favored for meeting energy demand and consumption. Hydrogen and other environmentally friendly fuels will soon be used in transportation. The title of this research project was “Hydrogen economy in India: A status review,” which focuses on the generation of hydrogen in India, as well as its storage and commercialization.
Another big advantage from Green Hydrogen is the increase in employment specially if you see in Agricultural Sector there making of green hydrogen from stubble can help a lot. The stubble burning is a huge problem if you see in India specially in Delhi region so what can be done is that making of Green Hydrogen from this stubble. Agricultural waste, which is hard to get rid of, could be used to make hydrogen, which could solve both the problem of making energy and the problem of getting rid of trash. Researchers in Pune have been working on a new way to make hydrogen directly from agricultural waste. This method is the result of their recent work. By fixing the problem of limited hydrogen supplies, this new technology could make more hydrogen fuel-cell electric cars, which are good for the environment, available. Recently in an interview our Union Minister Shri Nitin Gadkari was very optimistic about this method and wanted more research and development on this method. Green hydrogen would also minimize CO2 emissions by 3.6 gigatons. Green hydrogen energy imports would save $246 billion to $358 billion over the same period. Green hydrogen demand and export are promising. According to an NITI Aayog assessment on green hydrogen, price reduction is still needed. Sustainable development requires sustainable mobility. On August 15, 2021, India’s Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi Ji has inaugurated the National Hydrogen Energy Mission which lays out a plan for utilizing hydrogen as a source of energy.
We understood that there are many pros of Green Hydrogen but there are few cons as well like if you see the cost of green hydrogen currently is big problem as it is extremely high. Even if you see the steel industry green hydrogen costs 500/kg in comparison to grey hydrogen which costs only 150/kg which is a big difference although as per multiple journals and articles this price is expected to drop in near future. Another negative of Green Hydrogen is that if you see just like lithium ion batteries are made using Lithium and cobalt which is extracted by mining at the cost of environment hydrogen fuel cells need platinum and iridium which are again rare metals and need lot of digging and harming of environment. Then if you see storage of Green Hydrogen is a huge problem as well. Finally, we have a big problem called Round Trip Efficiency of hydrogen that means in the process of creating hydrogen 60-70% of its power gets lost in transition only which although if you see can be overcome if research and development is done and this issue is been addressed properly.
- Innovation and technological advancement will help to build the process stronger
The growing levels of renewable power penetration and the dropping costs of such electricity have led to a rise in the degree of interest in environmentally friendly hydrogen on a global scale. The ability of Indian petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis facilities to produce hydrogen is analyzed and discussed in this study. In addition, an estimation is made of both the possibility for installing solar photovoltaic (SPV) alkaline electrolysers for the production of green hydrogen as well as the SPV capacity necessary for this purpose. In a research of “Opportunities for green hydrogen production in petroleum refining and ammonia synthesis industries in India” it was precisely studied the need for water, the need for land for SPV power plants, the reduction of CO2 emissions, and the expected investments needed to set up the infrastructure for green hydrogen generation. Another study revealed that to decarbonize and sustainably industrialise the Global South, industrial processes like iron and steel manufacturing must be technologically changed. Green steel production relies on innovation. According to the findings of the research project titled “Green transformation in the iron and steel industry in India: Rethinking patterns of innovation,” the Indian government ought to take on a more active role in fostering innovative ideas so that it can accomplish its goal of greening the production of steel in India. International cooperation and the spread of technologies, together with initiatives by national governments to “open up” innovation policy, have the potential to hasten the aforementioned modifications of the system. Also they talk about Hydrogen being best among its alternative and how it can resolve all the issues existing in front of India.
Electrolysis- The creation of nuclear hydrogen by the electrolysis of water is a realistic, low-carbon technology for the decarbonization of industrial processes. All nations who are lacking in energy resources, such as India, have an obligation to reduce their reliance on imported fossil fuels so that they don’t have to pay Billions of dollars in just importing the energy. The study “Leveraging nuclear power-to-green hydrogen production potential in India: A country perspective” compares the consumption of green hydrogen by key Indian businesses to the water electrolysis done by Indian nuclear power reactors. Another research that covers a worldwide perspective is titled “Global hydrogen development – A technological and geopolitical review,” which covers the research and developmental area in hydrogen production, purification, compression, transportation, and consumption. In addition, he discusses current roadmaps and plans for large-scale hydrogen production in a number of different nations.
- National Green Hydrogen Mission(2021)
The Mission’s main aim is to make India a global hub for the production, use, and export of green hydrogen and its derivatives. This will help India achieve its goal of becoming Aatmanirbhar (self-reliant) through clean energy and will act as an inspiration for the global Clean Energy Transition. The Mission will result in significant economic decarbonization, reduced reliance on imported fossil fuels, and enable India to assume technological and market leadership in Green Hydrogen. The National Green Hydrogen Mission, approved by the Union Government at a cost of Rs19,744 crores, intends to establish India as a “global centre” for the use, production, and export of green hydrogen. On August 15, 2021, the National Hydrogen Mission was initiated with the purpose of reducing carbon emissions and improving the utilization of renewable sources of energy later it was passed by the union cabinet on January 4, 2022. The objective of the mission is to encourage the establishment of a green hydrogen production capacity of at least 5 MMT (Million Metric Tones) per annum in the country by the year 2030, along with an accompanying renewable energy capacity expansion of around 125 GW.
The Mission will acquire the skills required to create at least 5 MMT of environmentally friendly hydrogen annually by 2030 in order to meet the objectives. The potential for this figure can rise to 10 MMT year as export markets expand. The Mission will push for the replacement of fossil fuels and feed stocks based on fossil fuels with renewable fuels and feed stocks which is based on Green Hydrogen. To lessen the Mission’s environmental effect, this will be done. This will involve the use of green hydrogen in the manufacture of ammonia and the refinement of petroleum, the incorporation of green hydrogen into city gas distribution systems, the production of steel using green hydrogen, and the use of synthetic fuels derived from green hydrogen in places like transportation, shipping, and aviation to replace fossil fuels. The Mission also aims to establish India as a global leader in the development of electrolyzes and other technologies that aid in the creation of Green Hydrogen.
- Two Paths in front of India
India’s use of renewable energy is at a turning point. Should the nation embrace a green hydrogen future or continue to rely on imports to fulfil its demand for liquid and gaseous energy carriers? As India navigates the exciting challenge of providing extraordinary increases in energy supply to feed its quickly expanding economy while fulfilling the government’s commitment to 2070 net-zero emissions, the consequences might be enormous.
One route entails India continuing to rely on oil-rich countries for energy fuels and blue hydrogen carriers while also continuing to be exposed to often disastrous international rates like we have recently saw in the case of Covid-19 pandemic which OPEC+ Nations did production cut and due to that oil price rise to record levels. Or the alternative would include India making significant investments in R&D and demonstration to reduce the price of electrolysis and build on its status as one of the most cost-effective solar power producers worldwide. Only a decade ago, current solar PV costs were inconceivable. According to others, the price of electrolyzes and green hydrogen generation will also be unexpected. Large-scale electrolysis can also offer flexibility on the demand side, lowering the fluctuation of weather-dependent renewable energy output.
So, India must decide which path to choose one in which India would be self-reliant but for short term much profitable on the other side with more innovation, technology, research and development Green Hydrogen can make India self-reliant though it may take few years but if India manages to crack this code eventually it will go on to become not just the producer but also the net exporter of renewable energy and will go on to command extraordinary power in the global politics.
VII. Challenges for Green Hydrogen in India
Electrolysers challenge: As of 2021, the global electrolyser manufacturing capacity is 8 GW/year, according to IEA. India would need 60-100 GW of electrolyser capacity to meet its 2030 target, almost 12 times the global production capacity. India is manufacturing electrolyser, but the numbers are small. Access to nickel, platinum group metals, and rare earth metals like lanthanum, yttrium, and zirconium may also prevent India from scaling up electrolyser manufacturing. These resources are concentrated in China, DRC, Australia, Indonesia, South Africa, Chile, and Peru. India processes these minerals poorly. India would have to establish large-scale production, acquire expertise and secure geo-political relationships for essential resource acquisition, and improve electrolyser technological and economic viability year-over-year while competing with other global companies.
Energy source challenge: Current estimates show that a fully efficient electrolysis system would take 39 kWh of electricity to produce 1 kilogram of hydrogen. This is a laboratory figure, not an operational one. Green hydrogen needs renewable electricity. India expects 125 GW of renewable energy to satisfy its green hydrogen 2030 ambitions, in addition to the 500 GW projected. India has only reached 119 GW of its 175 GW solar, wind, bio-power, and minor hydro capacity. In addition to generation capacity, transmission infrastructure that facilitates cross-border electricity interchange between states is essential. Over the next seven years, India must build 100 GW of renewable energy capacity efficiently and economically and provide dispatch corridors and mechanisms.
End use challenge: The chemical sector uses most hydrogen to make ammonia for fertilizers, followed by refining for hydrocracking and fuel desulphurization. In hard-to-abate and electrify industries like steel, cement, and aluminum, it can provide heat. It fuels heavy-duty vehicles, aircraft, and shipping. Green hydrogen’s applicability depends on end-use energy carrier conversion efficiency.
Building a prosperous Indian economy on globally competitive renewable electricity will require a comprehensive industrial policy with strategic investments and other interventions to boost demand for green hydrogen in the chemical industry, hydrogen fuel vehicles, hydrogen turbines for firm power generation, steam generation, and other low-emission industrial production opportunities. The National Green Hydrogen Mission of India is a solid start. To attain these aims, policymakers must plan flexible supply networks and Labour capacities. In the current fossil fuel deployment phase, hydrogen gas is proving its strength as a sustainable, clean energy carrier with high specific energy and minimal pollution.
Fuel cell technologies are rapidly commercializing worldwide, with India still in the early stages. Public acceptability, regulation, standards, and rules are major challenges in India. After overcoming these obstacles, India might satisfy energy needs through clean means. Hydrogen fuel cell cars have three times the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines. India’s 2070 decarbonization timetable permits them to wait for wealthier countries to cut technological prices and follow their lead. That may appear safer, but new trade links with supply shortages and inflation threats would result. An ambitious mission-oriented industrial strategy in which the Indian government engages the business sector, universities, and society in a green energy future can lead to energy independence and prosperity. Colleges are crucial. Research skills would be scarce for Indian firms engaging in green hydrogen value chain R&D.
This problem demands significant investment in universities to scale up their research and research training programmes and strong incentives for collaboration between academics, industrial labs, and public research organisations. Universities provide human capital that meets national economic needs, sustaining innovation. Green hydrogen is needed to minimise life-threatening air pollution, energy imports, and decarbonize India’s fast growing economy. Green hydrogen can help India fight climate change if innovators, entrepreneurs, and the government work together. It may also help India to export high-value green products, making it one of the first major economies to industrialize without “carbonising.”
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